In a standardized survey interview, the interview proceeds according to a script (the introduction and the questionnaire) that is intended to minimize any potential impact of individual interviewers' behavior on respondents' answers and the resulting data. Standardized interviewing procedures for sample surveys were developed over several decades of the 20th century as evidence accrued that even seemingly minor differences in how interviewers behaved in interviews sometimes affected answers and data quality. Interviewers' biases or assumptions about particular types of respondents could creep into the interview through subtle changes in wording or tone that could lead respondents to interpret questions or the situation differently than they would have with a different interviewer. Even without intending to influence answers, interviewers who attempted to increase rapport by rephrasing ...
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