The term raw data is used most commonly to refer to information that is gathered for a research study before that information has been transformed or analyzed in any way. The term can apply to the data as soon as they are gathered or after they have been cleaned, but not in any way further transformed or analyzed. The challenge for most researchers who collect and analyze data is to extract useful information from the raw data they start with.

First, it is important to note that data is a plural noun {datum is the singular noun). Second, all collections of raw data are, by definition, incomplete. Some data are uncollected because of a variety of constraints. Lack of time and money are common reasons researchers ...

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