Multi-mode surveys (sometimes called "mixed-mode surveys") involve collecting information from survey respondents using two or more modes and combining the responses for analysis. Multi-mode surveys have become increasing popular because of the rise of new modes of data collection, the impact of computer technology, and decreasing response rates to traditional survey modes (particularly telephone surveys). The development of new modes of data collection has expanded the methods available to survey researchers. Multi-mode survey designs are extremely flexible when various combinations of modes can be employed to adapt to the particular needs of each research study. Multi-mode surveys are often used to compensate for coverage biases of individual modes and to increase overall response rates. However, these reductions in coverage and nonresponse must be balanced with ...

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