Mixed-mode surveys (sometimes referred to as multi-mode surveys) combine different ways (modes) of collecting data for a single project. Different methodologies may be used during distinct phases of a survey, such as recruitment, screening, and questionnaire administration, or they may make use of different survey modes during a single phase, like data collection. Mixed-mode surveys may involve combinations of more traditional survey modes such as face to face, telephone, and mail, or may include some of the newer modes like Internet, cell phone, diaries, or interactive voice response (IVR).
Researchers often employ mixed-mode survey designs to address problems associated with undercoverage of key groups of interest or to improve participation rates. Some mixed-mode designs can also be conducted at lower cost than single mode ...
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