Interviewer characteristics refer to the personal attributes of the interviewer who is conducting a survey with a respondent. These attributes may include physical attributes, such as gender, age, and voice qualities, and attitudinal or behavioral attributes, such as confidence or friendliness. Both visual and audio cues are available to respondents in face-to-face surveys, but respondents have only audio cues in telephone surveys. The characteristics of the interviewer introduce additional factors into the interaction between interviewer and respondent that may affect data collection and data quality. Research has shown that interviewer characteristics affect unit nonresponse, item nonresponse, and response quality.

Physical Characteristics

Physical characteristics of the interviewer, such as age, gender, or race, may be used by the respondent in the decision whether to agree to the survey ...

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