Hot-deck imputation is a popular and widely used imputation method to handle missing data. The method involves filling in missing data on variables of interest from nonrespondents (or recipients) using observed values from respondents (i.e. donors) within the same survey data set. Hot-deck imputation can be applied to missing data caused by either failure to participate in a survey (i.e. unit nonresponse) or failure to respond to certain survey questions (i.e. item non-response). The term hot deck, in contrast with cold deck, dates back to the storage of data on punch cards. It indicates that the donors and the recipients are from the same data set; the stack of cards was "hot" because it was currently being processed (i.e. run through the card reader ...

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