Within the context of survey research, disclosure can be used with two distinct meanings. In the first meaning, a researcher is required to provide full disclosure of his or her own identity and purpose in collecting data. In the second meaning, a researcher is required to prevent disclosure of information that could be used to identify respondents, in the absence of specific and explicit informed consent allowing the researcher to disclose such information.

However, in some research settings, full disclosure of the research objectives may jeopardize the objectivity of results or access to research participants. Observational research of behavior in public settings, for example, may be exempt from rules of informed consent, since the public nature of the behavior itself implies consent. Nevertheless, in this situation, ...

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