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Mode 1 and Mode 2 Knowledge Production

Encyclopedia
Edited by: & Published: 2014
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In 1994, Michael Gibbons, Camille Limoges, Helga Nowotny, Simon Schartzman, Peter Scott and Martin Trow introduced the terms Mode 1 and Mode 2 into the research literature, referring to Mode 2 as the ‘new production of knowledge’. This entry describes the characteristics of Mode 1 and Mode 2 and relates Mode 2 to action research.

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