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The entity or factor of time is an omnibus concept that has served well the enterprises of experimental science, research design, and scientific analysis in the physical, biological, behavioral, and social sciences. Indeed, time itself is often the object of study in the sciences, particularly in physics and experimental psychology. In essence, the concept of time seems to be so abstract, as well as so fundamental, that no universally accepted definition across, and within, the sciences is available. Thus, it is an issue of debate whether time is an abstraction dealing with the marking of change or a medium through which change occurs including endogenous and/or exogenous “clocks” or “timers.” In physics, whereas Newtonian mechanics regarded time as absolute, the newer notion of the special ...

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