Time-series analysis (TSA) is a statistical methodology appropriate for longitudinal research designs that involve single subjects or research units that are measured repeatedly at regular intervals over time. TSA can be viewed as the exemplar of all longitudinal designs. TSA can provide an understanding of the underlying naturalistic process and the pattern of change over time, or it can evaluate the effects of either a planned or unplanned intervention. The advances in information systems technology are making time-series designs an increasingly feasible method for studying important psychological phenomena.

Modern TSA and related research methods represent a sophisticated leap forward in the ability to analyze longitudinal data. Early time-series designs, especially within psychology, relied heavily on graphical analysis to describe and interpret the results. Although graphical methods ...

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