Hypothesis testing is a formal procedure often employed in scientific research to test theories or models. To formulate such a test, usually some theory has been put forward, either because it is believed to be true or because it is to be used as a basis for argument, but it has not been proved yet. In effect, the researcher bets in advance of the experiment that the results will agree with his or her theory and cannot be accounted for by the chance variations that are involved in the sampling. Nowadays, there are at least four different schools of thought on the inferential significance testing: Fisherian, Neyman–Pearson, Bayesian, and likelihood inference. It would be fair to argue that none of these inferential statistical methods is ...

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