A survey is a data-collection method in which individuals answer specific questions about their behavior, attitudes, beliefs, or emotions. Surveys are frequently used by multiple disciplines, including social and behavioral sciences, political sciences, public health, and business. Surveys are commonly used in nonexperimental (correlational) research but might also be incorporated into experiments. Nonexperimental surveys can be either cross-sectional (a single data collection), repeated cross-sectional (two or more data collections with different samples), or panel surveys (multiple data collections from the same sample). However, unless an experimental design is used, survey research does not allow for the drawing of causal inferences.

Types of Survey Questions

Surveys are composed of multiple questions assessing the constructs of interests. Typically, questions regarding demographic characteristics of participants (e.g., age, sex, race, marital ...

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