The standard error of measurement is a statistic that indicates the variability of the errors of measurement by estimating the average number of points by which observed scores are away from true scores. To understand standard error of measurement, an introduction of basic concepts in reliability theory is necessary. Therefore, this entry first examines true scores and error of measurement and variance components. Next, this entry discusses the standard error of measurement and its uses. Last, this entry comments on methods for reducing measurement error.

True Score and Error of Measurement

When psychological tests are administered, points on items measuring the same construct are aggregated to generate the raw score for each respondent. The raw score, or observed score, can be conceptualized as the sum of two ...

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