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Cause and effect refers to a relationship between two phenomena in which one phenomenon is the reason behind the other. For example, eating too much fast food without any physical activity leads to weight gain. Here eating without any physical activity is the “cause” and weight gain is the “effect.” Another popular example in the discussion of cause and effect is that of smoking and lung cancer. A question that has surfaced in cancer research in the past several decades is, What is the effect of smoking on an individual's health? Also asked is the question, Does smoking cause lung cancer? Using data from observational studies, researchers have long established the relationship between smoking and the incidence of lung cancer; however, it took compelling evidence ...

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