Statistical significance refers to the difference between two measurements that results from more than randomness. Every research project, experiment, or study that counts, measures, quantifies, or otherwise collects or handles data will ultimately have the need to make comparisons between their data and some other standard. If a difference between two measurements or a measurement and some standard is detected, then that difference is a statistically significant difference if it is caused by an actual difference between the two, rather than simply a result of random variation.

For example, a psychologist might be interested in determining which of two treatments is more effective in treating depression. Having determined some means of determining each treatments' effectiveness, the researcher might, then, administer the different treatments to selected individuals ...

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