Often in social science research, data are collected from a number of examinees that are each scored on their performance on items of a test. Here, a “test” broadly refers to an assessment of an examinee's level of ability in a particular domain such as math or reading, or a survey of an examinee's behaviors or attitudes toward something. In Probabilistic Models for Some Intelligence and Attainment Tests, George Rasch proposed a model for analyzing such test data. The model, known as the Rasch model, and its extensions are perhaps among the most known models for the analysis of test data. In the analysis of data with a Rasch model, the aim is to measure each examinee's level of a latent trait (e.g., math ability, ...

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