The placebo effect is any reaction to the administration of a placebo that is both clinically significant and salutary. A placebo is any treatment prescribed for a condition for which it is physically ineffective. The placebo effect has been successfully and repeatedly demonstrated on variables that are subjectively experienced, such as pain reduction, coping mechanisms, emotional well-being, and cognitions. The majority of research has centered on pain relief, also known as placebo analgesia. The magnitude of the effect and the percentage of those affected depend on a number of factors, but research indicates that approximately one third of individuals who receive a placebo believing it to be a potent treatment report a significant analgesic effect.

The research involving objective measures of beneficence has been more ...

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