Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) designs are appropriate when multiple dependent variables are included in the analysis. The dependent variables should represent continuous measures (i.e., interval or ratio data). Dependent variables should be moderately correlated. If there is no correlation at all, MANOVA offers no improvement over an analysis of variance (ANOVA); if the variables are highly correlated, the same variable may be measured more than once. In many MANOVA situations, multiple independent variables, called factors, with multiple levels are included. The independent variables should be categorical (qualitative). Unlike ANOVA procedures that analyze differences across two or more groups on one dependent variable, MANOVA procedures analyze differences across two or more groups on two or more dependent variables. Investigating two or more dependent variables simultaneously ...

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