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Likert (pronounced lick-ert) scaling is a method of attitude, opinion, or perception assessment of a unidimensional variable or a construct made up of multidimensions or subscales. It recognizes the contribution to attitude assessment of Rensus Likert who published a classic paper on this topic in 1932, based on his doctoral dissertation directed by Gardner Murphy and based on work Murphy had undertaken in 1929. The use of Likert items and scaling is probably the most used survey methodology in educational and social science research and evaluation.

The Likert scale provides a score based on a series of items that have two parts. One part is the stem that is a statement of fact or opinion to which the respondent is asked to react. The other part ...

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