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KR-20 (Kuder–Richardson Formula 20) is an index of the internal consistency reliability of a measurement instrument, such as a test, questionnaire, or inventory. Although it can be applied to any test item responses that are dichotomously scored, it is most often used in classical psychometric analysis of psychoeducational tests and, as such, is discussed with this perspective.

Values of KR-20 generally range from 0.0 to 1.0, with higher values representing a more internally consistent instrument. In very rare cases, typically with very small samples, values less than 0.0 can occur, which indicates an extremely unreliable measurement. A rule-of-thumb commonly applied in practice is that 0.7 is an acceptable value or 0.8 for longer tests of 50 items or more. Squaring KR-20 provides an estimate of the ...

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