In the human sciences, ethical concerns are felt at the level of the practicing scientist and are the focus of scholarly attention in the field of research ethics. Most of the ethical issues have to do with the scientist's obligations and the limits on permissible scientific activity. Perspectives on these issues are informed by ideas drawn from a variety of intellectual traditions, including philosophical, legal, and religious. Political views and cultural values also influence the interpretation of researcher conduct. Ethical questions about scientific activity were once considered external to the research endeavor, but today, it is taken for granted that researchers will reflect on the decisions that they make when designing a study and the ethical ramifications that their work might have. Scientists are also ...

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