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  • 00:17

    Well, for me, it's very important,and I try to exude that love for researchwith my students, my doctoral students.And I would say because it makes peoplemore curious, more interested about their world, the culturethat they're in, and makes them more self-reflective.And that's why I think we should start research methodology

  • 00:39

    classes even earlier than doctoral work or masters work.I think that, as soon as someone comesinto the university at the freshman level,research would be a key element of what they're studying.So as to get them excited about, why is this happening to me,or why is this happening in our culture?Why are these stories in the newspapers or on TV happening?

  • 01:03

    And I think that they need to learnthe techniques of observation, of interviewing,all these skills that we use as qualitative researchers.And they also have to know how to look historicallyat whatever the issue or the context is they're studying.So I think that's one of the reasons I'mexcited about teaching research, being a researcher,

  • 01:24

    writing about it, and having my studentsdo the same eventually, if they choose to.So, I think it very important for usto be more critical, and these skills that research ispushing, so to speak, the skills are being critical, reading,reflecting.And I often laugh at some of my students who come in

  • 01:48

    and say, I want to be a novelist.I really don't want to do research.And I said, well, you know, if you're going to be a novelist,you're going to have to do more research than could everimagine.You'll have to look at history.You'll have to look at the era that you're writing about,know every single thing that happened.Critical events, non critical events,what was daily life like, and so on.

  • 02:09

    So that's why research, I think, shouldbe prominent in the curriculum, and weshould get people excited about itand really not just uncritically lookingat the news or the newspapers or whatever their reading,digitally or otherwise.

  • 02:31

    Well luckily, a lot of students who come into my classesare hungry for learning this.You see, what's happened in research, at leastin the United States, because of my writingin qualitative research, I get to go to a lot of countriesand places on earth.All continents, actually, except for Antarctica, of course.But anyway, one of the things I don't have to worry about

  • 02:54

    is people wanting to learn, and I don't have to sell it.The hardest thing, though, for teaching qualitative methods,is to sort of fight uphill that traditional metanarrative that's been strangling usin research for over a century.

  • 03:14

    Next year, AERA, American Ed Research Association,is going to celebrate 100 years of being alive and well.And the narrative that's been in prominencehas been the post-positivist kindof proof, generalizability, only numberscount, and this kind of thing.

  • 03:35

    Well, we're trying to say, there'snothing wrong with looking at numbers.We look at numbers all the time, and we use itin our work as qualitative researchers.We use demographic statistics.For example, we're here in Chicago taping this.We need to know about, what is the makeup of Chicago?The race, class, gender issues that are prominent

  • 03:55

    here and so on, and that's what welike to unpack as qualitative researchers.So students coming into my classes love to do that,so I'm very fortunate that way.And I've had masters students as inspired,and it's like a light bulb goes off when they start reading.Wow, I can observe a situation.

  • 04:16

    I can write about that.I can interview people and find outwhat's happening at the ground and at the ground level.And so, I think people want to hear stories,and there's nothing so amazing as a powerful story,and people like telling stories.So one of the big chunks of being a qualitative researcheris telling stories in a meaningful way,

  • 04:39

    in a way that gets people inspired and thinking,and of course that means you have to be a good writer.Actually, I tell my students, above averageto excellent writer would help.And so, I have them read things like Stephen King's bookon writing, which is brilliant, by the wayand they really attack it and attach themselves to it.

  • 04:60

    They love Stephen King.I also use Natalie Goldberg's book, "Writing Down the Bones."And she talks about something I liketo talk about and write about, and thatis, practice makes perfect.So I have students practice writing, practice observation,and practice interviewing.If you've seen some of my books with SAGEand my articles and book chapters,

  • 05:22

    you'll know that I talk about practicing a lot and habits.Develop this habit of writing.One of my meditation teachers from the Deepak ChopraCenter always said-- and he himselfsays it-- if you want to do anything, you develop a habit.It takes 30 days to develop it, so I challenge my students

  • 05:42

    and peers to write every day for a specific time.Start out easy.15 minutes, 20 minutes, work up to 30 minutes,and then take a whole hour to do it.And that's what got me interested, too,in writing early on in my career, which wasa long time ago, by the way.

  • 06:02

    So I always kept a journal.And people who are afraid of writing,I suggest, why don't you try a journal?Just write about what you did yesterday,or what your day is going to be like today,or, at the end of the day, if you're writing,what did you do every single hour of today?And then, after that, write three or four sentencesto describe that day.

  • 06:23

    Then I want them to describe themselves as writers,and write about what does it mean for me,whoever I am, to write.And so, I like to get them in the habit of writing,observing, and interviewing.And that's a very interesting thing, by the way,because people think they can interview because theywatch Katie Couric interview someone, or Matt Lauer,

  • 06:46

    or whoever.Diane Sawyer.And those are different kind of interviews,because one of the things that youhave to do as a researcher is let the participant tell youtheir story.Don't interrupt them.Don't have them tell you what you want to hear.Sit still, listen, and don't butt in.

  • 07:07

    And every-- without fail, after we do an interview, practiceinterview somewhere in the community and peoplecome back to deconstruct it, the first thing they sayis, I talked too much.Because after they hear it on tape again and seethe transcript that they came up with,all they do is talk, talk, talk, and interrupt the participant.

  • 07:28

    So what kind of story is this?So, after they get to the real heart of interviewing,then they see the power of the words of the participantsand that then they go to the next levelof being a researcher.And a lot of my students, I've noticed,stop at the reporter level.

  • 07:49

    Any of us can go on the street today here in Chicago,and ask them, what's your day like today?So we're going to get a report, basically,and then we can write it up for the ChicagoTribune or something.However, if you want to be a researcher,you're going to have to step back, look at this data,look at how it fits in the context of Chicago

  • 08:09

    or wherever you're studying, and then come upwith some analysis of it.And so, that's the challenge we have.And to me, that the excitement is that we'regetting people's stories.Developing habits and practicing writing.Like they say write, W-R-I-T-E, to the top.

  • 08:30

    Write, write, write, and if you don't write,you're not going to be a qualitative researcher.That's just how it is.Well, I guess dance and my previous careerin having a dance company, being a choreographer, teaching

  • 08:50

    the history of dance.I taught anatomy for the dancer, ballet one and two,and modern dance one and two at a community collegewhile I was going to work on my doctorateat Michigan State University.And I saw the parallels between dance and research,and in fact, I wrote about it in the first and second editions

  • 09:11

    of the Handbook of Qualitative Research of Denzin and Lincolnthat SAGE put out over the years.And I look at, how do we prepare as a dancer?We do exercises.We stretch.We move.And we do that until we get to almost perfect plie, or almost

  • 09:34

    perfect releve, or any movement in dance.And after stretching and working out,then you move to the next level, which is floor exercises,moving across the floor.So, in qualitative research, I think of,like the dancers stretching and preparing,we're preparing all the time by practicing these techniques.

  • 09:57

    The technique of observation, the techniqueof writing narrative vignettes, the technique of interviewing,the technique of looking at historyand historical demographics or informationto place our participants in a context somewhere.So that's similar to those prep exercises.The floor exercises is the part of looking at transcripts,

  • 10:20

    looking at your data after you remove yourself from the field,and you continue to develop the habit of ongoing analysis.We never stop analysis in dance.We never stop analysis in qualitative research.And then finally, the performance in dancebecomes whatever our write up, our finalwrite up of the story that we're writing,

  • 10:42

    or the article, or the book, or the book chapter.It has to come to some performance.So for the dancer, opening night, you have performance.And then for the researcher, it'swhatever our publication is.However, in dance, we're used to somethingthat we're only starting to write about in research.

  • 11:03

    As soon as you get done with a performance in danceor on a stage of any kind, you get a critique.The director sits you down.You don't go to a party, you don't go anywhere else but,you sit in the theater waiting for critique.And I think that's so important to see,where in that performance could I do better?

  • 11:23

    Well here, when we do a presentationof our research at the conference here,or an article, a book, or whatever,we sort of stop right there.We don't go back and critique, like after the publication,do we go back and ask, what could I have done betterin chapter seven?Or what could I have done better?So I think what got me interested in this,

  • 11:45

    back to your beginning of what got me here,that's what got me here.Dance, if you can imagine.And high school teachers who inspired me, who saidwrite every day, keep a journal, write poetry,and I'm very interested in poetryas a way to represent interview data or historical data

  • 12:07

    or whatever.So right now I'm writing about poetry as inquiryas part of qualitative methods.Poetry represents, Carl Sandburg once said,poetry is about talking about your soul,and I think that's very true for qualitative researchers,getting to the heart of someone's soul.Or what's the heart of the story that they're telling?And what better way to tell it than with poetry?

  • 12:31

    And so, I've been writing about found data poetry, whichis looking at your transcript, for example,looking through those words and sentences,and coming up with key phrases and so on, rearranging it.And then, the poem almost writes itself.Because you have the data from the transcript,or from any notes taken, or from possible documents

  • 12:53

    that you've collected, or e-mailsthat are part of the story, and then you make a poem from it.And another kind of poetry I like to focus onis identity poetry, because I findthat it's very important for researchersto describe their role as the researcher.And one of the ways to do it is to writeabout your own beliefs, your own values,

  • 13:15

    and that sort of is similar to the quantitative paradigm,about when they-- although they never describe their biases,we do.We're upfront about it.We say, this is what we believe, this is what we value,this is why we're doing this kind of research.And so, when we do that, we identifyand we place ourselves in the study.

  • 13:37

    So I think poetry is another nice way to do it,and the arts help us round out the whole of the story.Just like in life, can you imagine a lifewithout movies or poetry or art?Of course, in this city, you can't be far from any of that.In fact, I just saw a street performer right herein the walkway of the Wrigley building.

  • 13:59

    Sprayed himself in silver, and he has a silver suitand he's doing mime.So it's everywhere, and I think that life qualityis part of what qualitative research is about.To capture the life of the person.Don't erase it, don't put everybody in a lump.You see, we don't try to coagulate people.

  • 14:20

    We try to individually see what they're talking aboutand what their life means, and what it is to be whatever.What is it to be a teacher today in West Garfield Park, oneof the most dangerous neighborhoods and poorestneighborhoods in Chicago, for example.So this is what we want to do, and Ithink the arts help us do it.Also our participants love the arts in many, many cases,

  • 14:43

    and they can also do poetry, and they can do journals,and we can keep journaling together,and some researchers actually do that.Well, I think since early in my doctoral studies yearsago at Michigan State, I got interested

  • 15:05

    in the work of Elliot Eisner.And he did some wonderful things for qualitative researchand made us think in new ways about it, by lookingat imagination and the arts.And in fact, I write about imagination a lot,and the importance of it in research.So I think my most important writer

  • 15:29

    would've been Elliot Eisner.As you know, he passed away a little over a year ago.We had many tributes to him and his books just are astounding.And I have my students look at a lot of that.Some of the people who've worked with himhave also written books, like the book "Intricate Pallet,"which is a series of essays about what the arts can

  • 15:52

    bring to the research activity.Also, I've always worked with teachers or people whoare going to be principles, curriculumdirectors, and the like, and they are alsointerested in new ways to look at thingsthat affect their life.Such as assessment, teaching assessments.How should that be done?

  • 16:13

    Can't we do it a little more with observation and vignettes,much like the qualitative work?And so I think he inspired me to write about that, whatwe call authentic assessment.When we look at what a student can do,not what we're training them to memorize for a test.So I think he's very timely now for the big fury

  • 16:34

    and controversy over high stakes testing, for example.So I'd put Elliot Eisner there at the top.And as far as my critical pedagogy and critical thinking,I would say the people who influenced memost are Henry Giroux, Peter McLaren, Joe Kincheloe, ShirleySteinberg, Maxine Greene, people like this.

  • 16:56

    Paulo Freire, of course.So these are my theoretical base, I would say.Oral history to me is the recorded reminiscencesof someone, and everything that they can remember.

  • 17:18

    And oral history is a wonderful kindof sub-genre of interviewing, because there'sall sorts of interviewing.There's interviewing that has short, quick answers.For example, business uses product kind of things,and focus groups are kind of a quick wayto get a snap answer on one thing that you focus on,

  • 17:40

    like, do you like Pepsi or do you like Coke?It sort of combines the whole discipline of historywith the whole discipline of research.And oral history is right now as a field in a bit of upheaval.Shouldn't we just have the interviewand let the interview speak for itself?Well, in my view, data doesn't speak for itself.

  • 17:60

    It can be powerful to many a critical reader,but if you want to lead your reader to understand moreabout it and what the interpretation of the datais, then of course you have to analyze it.And so I like to do that with oral history,to look at what's there and analyze it and make sense of itfor the reader.And of course, in any research, quantitative or qualitative,

  • 18:23

    you never know what the reader isgoing to make of your findings, do you?You could lead them one way and hope that they'd agree,but they may say, wait a minute, that makes no sense to me.I think it means this.And I can give you an example of that.One of my professors at Michigan State, Phil Cusick,did a study of high school.

  • 18:43

    In fact, his book that came from his dissertationwas called "Inside High School," and hewas youthful looking at the time,and he became a student for a year in high school.And he wanted to find out, what do students talk about?And you know what they talk about?Drugs, sex, and rock and roll.They don't talk about teachers.They don't talk about education.

  • 19:04

    They don't talk about their assignments.They don't talk about anything else but the thingsthat teenagers talk about.And when he wrote that up, the teachers were horrified.The principle was horrified.Other educators said, wait a minute,they have to be talking about school!Well, they weren't.So he presented this data and he got into nuance here and there

  • 19:26

    and he did some other interesting researchsimilar to that in the Detroit public schools,not too far from East Lansing, Michigan.And so he presented the data to the StateDepartment of Education, and what did they do?But they cut a couple programs.Programs for special ed and poor people.And that wasn't his intent at all,and he said, remember this, and I always remember

  • 19:48

    it and I teach my students.You never know what people will make sense of in your data,but your job as the researcher is to do as much as possibleto lead them to understand, what does this mean?What does this oral history mean?Now, the other thing about oral historythat's interesting for me, is over the yearsmost oral histories have been done

  • 20:10

    around significant traumatic events.Recently, for example, with Hurricane Katrina.After Katrina, I can't tell you how many anthropologists,sociologists, oral historians, researchers in general,went down there to get stories.So that was a significant traumatic event.9/11 was a significant traumatic event.

  • 20:32

    There are hosts of archives with oral histories of before,during, and after 9/11, before, during, and after Katrina.And still to this day, people are stilltaking oral histories of people in those eventswho were participants or bystandersor observers in those events.

  • 20:54

    So I think oral history provides us with a glimpseinto something we don't have time to do.For example, a reporter might go down thereand say, look at what's happening at this corner.Look at what happened here.But the oral historian can go down thereand get, what does that mean to live through it?What does that mean to see someone close to you

  • 21:14

    pass away during something like a Hurricane Katrina or a 9/11?So, I think that adds to the historical record.That adds to our history of ideas.I think of my work placed in the history of ideas, lookingto contribute more to it and have my students alsocontribute.

  • 21:42

    I like to think of qualitative researchas a real platform for using the arts.And just as the arts are alive and active,so is research, because I think research is an active verb.To research something.To go to the essence of it.To go to the heart of it.And that's what I like to do and what I try and hope my students

  • 22:05

    will do.So I think the arts are perfect for that,because the arts represent every single component of humanity.Our goodness, the acts that aren't so good.They represent our happiness, our sadness, our grief,our anger, whatever.All the parts of the human being.And so in that way, the qualitative researcher

  • 22:28

    is very, very welcome to use this wide spectrumof approaches with the arts.And for example, today here at the conference,you'll see sessions on play making, drama, painting,photography.Right now in the digital era, we'reso fortunate to have at our disposal,

  • 22:48

    we all carry around an object-- an iPhone,for example-- that's a computer that happensto be able to be a phone.We have computers with us all the time.We can take pictures from our cellphones.I carry my iPad everywhere, and I justtook a couple pictures of the river and the Wrigley Buildinghere where we are near.

  • 23:10

    I think that all the tools of the 21st centuryare at our disposal, to make arts available to more people.And I think the more we get our research out,and the media we use, the more people willunderstand what we're doing.And understand themselves, because they see the arts

  • 23:30

    as a way of speaking to every individual,in some way, whatever the art form, to make our lives better.And why are we doing research anyway?We're trying to improve society, improve education,improve schools, and improve families' and individuals'lives.So I think the arts have the key to that.

  • 23:53

    Other art forms, especially filmmaking--what a great way to do short filmsabout whatever your studying.Right now in academia, I'd say in the last 10 years,we've gone completely digital in terms of the dissertation.So students can put in their dissertations now,which are all digitally captured anyway,

  • 24:17

    short movie clips, short videos, photography, painting.And the resolution today in camerascan get all those colors so perfectly donein the dissertation.So this is a way to help us get our mesSAGE out,because I can tell you, most people spend a lot of timewatching TV and going to the movies.

  • 24:37

    Why don't we use some of those techniques in our research?It makes perfect sense.But the other thing about the artsis it reminds us that there are many, many ways of knowingthe world.There is not just the statistical record.There's not just the demographics,but the personal story that comes through, individually,one at a time, every single culture that we study.

  • 25:01

    So we have, historically, a way to think,our precursors, the historians, the anthropologists,the sociologists, the literary critics who did,essentially, a lot of this kind of work.And now we call it, for the big umbrellait's qualitative research.But there are many sub-genres, and one of themis arts-based inquiry.

  • 25:22

    And in fact, there's a whole groupof researchers that call this A/R/Tography,and they spell it A/R/Tography.A/R/Tography.I thought that was very creative,and it represents something that pulls the reader in to say,I want to know more about this A/R/Tography.I want to know about arts-based research.

  • 25:45

    And arts-based research is where,I think, we can do a lot of goodness and good for society,because that's what research is essentially about.And being curious about it, to sparkcuriosity in the observer.What a great way to spend a life, isn't it?

  • 26:11

    Like I mentioned, I had great teachers in high school.My Latin teacher and my English teachergot me interested in this.Practicing poetry, being in drama, being in debate.I was in our debate club and that got me interested.Because to be a debater, you have to do research.To do research, not just historical researchor looking at texts, but you had to interview people,

  • 26:33

    and that's what really got me excited about it.I had no idea that I was doing something calledqualitative research until I got to my master's program,where I did.My first job as a grad assistant wasto study people at the Art Institute of Toledo, Ohio,because my master's was from Bowling Green, Ohio, in Radio,

  • 26:56

    TV, and Film.And I started to notice patterns of what art was viewedby which groups and so on.And that was the first training in it.And then I was very fortunate at Michigan Stateto have a number of assistantships and researchfellowships and internships for research, attachedto institutes.

  • 27:17

    So we got in the practice of research all the time.And I try to get my students excited that way about it,and getting them into some research project.And they often say, well I have writer's block.I can't do this.No, you don't have writer's block.You have reader's block!You have to go read some more, and you haveto read more and more and more.

  • 27:38

    That enables you to write more.So I think those early experiences,and the practice of keeping a journal, got me into research.And I wouldn't want it any other way.It's been a great experience to do and to be part of that.

  • 28:02

    Be still.Be reflective.Be happy about it.Don't look like a grump.I often say we should have a love for humanityto do this work.You have to have patience, and you have to be listening.Practice listening.Develop that habit of listening to people.

  • 28:23

    No interruptions, not your story, their story.Be still.Secondly, I would say go right backto a quiet place, your study area or your officeor somewhere, and write.Write about it.Take the notes after the fact.You can take notes while you're interviewing and so on, too.But to start a career, I would say

  • 28:44

    be prepared by doing your homework ahead of time,look at what is the story of this school?Every school has a story.Every culture has a story, and there arelittle subcultures of society.Learn about that neighborhood.Learn about the racial composition.Learn about the teachers, how long have they been there,all those things, then you go into the site.

  • 29:06

    And this is in any bureaucracy.If you're going into a hospital to studynurses, or emergency tech people,or if you're studying doctors.Whatever you do, do your homework and read, read, read.Learn about it.Be patient.Be still.Write.And above all, be happy doing it.Don't feel like, what a burden this is to interview.

  • 29:27

    You want to be joyful about it.Well, I think research can help them in any disciplinethat they're working in.I think it can make them more aware of who theyare as a person, and their strengths and their weaknesses

  • 29:48

    and their skills.And I think that's the same thing for me.When I teach, I'm learning more about myselfas I learn more about my students and vice versa.So I think it helps with every single part of the day.Reading the news critically.You open your iPad and there's latest news from Politicoor New York Times or whatever.

  • 30:09

    But who's in charge of that narrative?That's the question I ask them to ask too.Who's holding sway over this narrativeand what does it mean?And does it make sense to you?Do you buy it?Can you find an alternative source of evidencethat challenges that story?Because every story has some holes in it, doesn't it?

  • 30:30

    So it's up to us to do that, and Ithink studying research helps youto be more critical, to be more reflective, to be more active.Instead of being a passive agent, playing video gamesand watching TV five hours a night, why don't youget out in your community and get active or evengo and do something athletic, but be engaged somewhere.

  • 30:54

    I think research has the potentialand actually does help people become more active agentsin their own life, in their own community,and ultimately, for the better of society.Well, for me, I just finished a book

  • 31:14

    on Zen principles, principles from Zen meditation appliedto qualitative research, which I'mcalling contemplative qualitative inquiry.And I looked at some of the three key principles in zen.One is non-self.And in Zen meditation, the idea is to detach from the self

  • 31:38

    and to be still.Be meditative.In qualitative research, that's a very good applicationfor letting your participant tell you their story.Let them tell you about themselves.You don't insert yourself in and muddy the story, so to speak.

  • 32:01

    The other one is nirvana.Nirvana is a very misinterpreted term.In Zen, nirvana only means understandingthe entire universe at once in some moment.And in qualitative research, aren't wetrying to do that with the story we're capturing?

  • 32:24

    We need this story.Why not capture the whole story?That's nirvana.It's not the Kurt Cobain.Nirvana doesn't come through external stimulants and thingslike this.It comes internally.So the Zen principles are really internal,and I think, in qualitative research,

  • 32:44

    historically we're at a point now wherewe can unpack that internal business,being so totally reflective and in the moment,really listening to the participant, and in the moment,being who we are, at the same time allowing that participantto become who they are.Does that make sense?

  • 33:05

    There's one more Zen principle that's really interestingand that is impermanence.For the Zen practitioner and a yogapractitioner-- Did I mention I'm alsostudying to be a yoga teacher and a meditation teacher?And so it's similar to dance in a lot of ways.You practice, practice, practice,you get better, better, better, and you perform better,

  • 33:26

    and you come to this understanding.We try to look for stability, for permanence,but everything changes.And the concept of Zen impermanenceis that everything changes.In fact, all of Buddhism in generalcan be described into words.Everything changes.Yet we want it not to change, and so there's

  • 33:46

    a very good resonance and fit with qualitative methods,because whatever you find, another researcher goinginto that same culture could find something very differentdepending on how they interpret and howthey make sense of the data.So all findings are tentative.

  • 34:08

    And this is not just for qualitative research.In quantitative research, the same holds.A statistical formula one day may be very differentthe next with the very same data,depending on which formula and which approach you use,and what you leave in or leave out of the research report.So impermanence is a perfect resonator

  • 34:31

    with qualitative methods.So I also like the idea of contemplationand sitting still and meditating,because we have this enormous, frenetic activity all the time.And where are we running to?Why are we running around like chickens with their headscut off from this activity to that activity,

  • 34:54

    and what sense does it make?So, what meditation has taught me, and especially Zen,is to be contemplative, to be stilland to make sense of your world.Take time for yourself.Be calm.And I think the practice of meditation

  • 35:14

    is something like practicing journal writing.You set aside 20 minutes, 30 minutes,whatever to just be still.And for the qualitative researcher,I think that stillness allows you to come upwith new ideas, new moments of interpretation in the data,and something to make sense of and tell a better story,

  • 35:37

    eventually.Where I'm going next, I want to combine poetry and Zen.Poetry and contemplative approaces to research.And specifically, poetry as inquiry,

  • 35:59

    and use poetry as a way to make sense of interviews,observations, any kind of site documents,any text like e-mail, like a memo, like a letter.These kinds of written texts, I want to turn that into poetry,

  • 36:19

    write about poetry.Also write about the heart and soul of poetryand a lot more about imagination and curiosityas part of the research act.Because, as I mentioned earlier, research is an active verb.It's an act.It's a very live principle in my life and other researchers,

  • 36:39

    I imagine.So I want to go there.That's what I'm going to do.And you're going to see something about poetryas inquiry from me very soon.

Abstract

Professor Valerie Janesick discusses qualitative and arts-based research, and how they differ from quantitative research. Responding to criticism about the limited generalizability of quantitative research, she stresses that everything observed in research is impermanent. Janesick also explains how research skills can help deepen a person's engagement with all of life.

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Valerie Janesick Discusses Qualitative Research, Reflection & Writing

Professor Valerie Janesick discusses qualitative and arts-based research, and how they differ from quantitative research. Responding to criticism about the limited generalizability of quantitative research, she stresses that everything observed in research is impermanent. Janesick also explains how research skills can help deepen a person's engagement with all of life.

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