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  • 00:04

    [Researching Substance Abuse UsingCommunity-Based Participatory Research Methods]Hi.My name is Lili Windsor.[Liliane Windsor, MSW, PhD, Assistant Professor, Schoolof Social Work, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign]And I'm an assistant professor at the University of Illinoisat Urbana-Champaign.My research focuses on substance userelated health disparities, whichincludes disproportionate rates of HIV, Hepatitis C,

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    and incarceration among marginalized groupsin the United States.[Introduction to Participatory Research & Concept Mapping]In this case study, I'm going to show youhow I use concept mapping to starta community-based, participatory program of research.

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    I used this methodology to operationalizethe role of substance use in a marginalized communityin the United States using the perspectives of the community,while identifying community residents,consumers-- in this case, drug users-- and service providersto serve in a new community collaborative

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    board responsible for conducting the remainingphases of the CBPR program.[Community-Based Participatory Research--A framework to research in which members of the community workpartners academic community]CBPR is a framework to research, in which membersof the community work as equal partnerswith academic, professional researchersto identify and develop sustainable solutionsto problems identified by the community.

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    This partnership among diverse constituenciesensures that research questions and proceduresreflect the needs and priorities of the communities themselves.[Concept Mapping-- A comprehensive and integratedmethodological approach described and licensedby Concept Systems, Inc.]Concept mapping is a comprehensive and integratedmethodological approach described and licensedby Concept Systems, Incorporated.It includes specific steps to develop a research question,

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    conduct and analyze data, and interpret findingswith research input from participants.While concept mapping is a research method,I used it as both a tool to engage community membersin the research process and as a research methodology.This approach provided a systematic mixed methods

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    structure through which community residents, substanceusers, and service providers couldbe involved at every stage of the research project.Concept mapping also allowed me to organize large amountsof data in a community friendly format easily understoodby both researchers and community partners alike.

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    [Research Aims]The goals of the project includedto develop a framework depicting the roleof alcohol and drug use in a marginalized community.[Research Aims-- To develop a framework depictingthe role of alcohol and drug use in a marginalized community]And to develop a community collaborative board chargedwith using the framework to inform future research

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    projects aiming to address community identified problems.[To develop a community collaborative board chargedwith using the framework to inform future researchprojects aiming to address community identified problems]Concept mapping consisted of five steps, including, one,community preparation, two, community brainstorming, three,

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    community sorting and rating, four,multivariate statistical analysis, and five,community interpretation and utilization of results.[Concept Mapping Steps-- Community preparation.Community brainstorming.Community sorting and rating.Multivariate statistical analysis.interpretation utilization results.]The entire project took place over the course of oneyear, including the research question formulation, the datacollection, and the dissemination of findings.

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    The sample consisted of substance use disorder serviceproviders, substance users, and community members.In the project, we included all four of these groupsin every stage of the research.Some of the participants helped as a study participantwhile others helped as both.[Community Preparation]

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    The community preparation consistedof the steps taken to identify community partners,develop a prompt to be used in the brainstorming session,decide what populations should be included,and discuss recruitment strategies,and identify location of data collection.The phase concluded with the submission of an application

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    to the Internal Review Board, the group thatoversees the ethical conduct of researchwith human participants.[Community Brainstorming]Brainstorming and concept mappingconsists of a highly structured type of focus group,in which data is collected in the form of words or statements

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    in response to a specific prompt.Unlike a typical focus group, where participantsare encouraged to answer questions and engagein a dialogue, in brainstorming, the datacollected is restricted to statementsgenerated by the group.Prior to the brainstorming session,and with input from community members,

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    the research team developed the key initial research questionfor the project.The question was, what is the roleof drug and alcohol [INAUDIBLE] low-income and predominantlyAfrican American neighborhoods?During the brainstorming session,participants were asked to respond to this question

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    with one word or one statement.The group facilitator would write the word or statementon the computer, and the group followed along,watching the computer screen projected on the wall.The group would suggest ways to improve the wording,until the group agreed the statement was clear.Note that participants do not have

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    to agree with our statement.They must simply agree that the statement is clear.And at least one person must feelthe statement is relevant to the research question.Three separate brainstorming sessionswere conducted to allow the different groupsof participants to express their unique perspectivesabout the matter.

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    The sessions were facilitated by trained social workers.[Brainstomring Analysis & Findings]A total of 209 statements were generated by the groups.The list of statements was reduced independentlyby five people-- two service providers, two research

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    assistants, and a researcher.These individuals deleted duplicated, confusing,and complex statements.The group compared their reduced list, and through consensus,agreed to keep 100 statements.[Sorting & Rating]

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    For the purposes of this project,three sorting and rating groups--each with substance users, community residents,and service providers-- worked independentlyto code and organize the statementsets based on their opinions of which statements went together.Participants were told to group statementsthat-- in their opinion-- reflected similar concepts.

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    Participants were then asked to assign a descriptivetitle to each pile of statements based on each pile's content.Once the sorting was completed, participantsrated each statement on a five-point Likert scale-- zero,completely disagree with the statement, to five, completelyagree with the statement.

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    Data can be entered directly into the Concept Systemsoftware.[Multidimensional Scaling]Multidimensional scaling is the key analysisemployed in concept mapping.It aggregates the data collected in the sortingstep into a similarity matrix to create a point map.

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    [Multidimensional Scaling-- Aggregates the data collectedin the sorting step into a similarity matrixto create a point map]This map is a pictorial representationof statements' cooccurence in each pile.Each point of the map represents a statement.The closer the statements are on the map, the more timesthey were put together in the same pile by participants,and the closer they are conceptually.

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    A sample of no more than 30 individualsis recommended for this analysis.[Hierarchical Cluster Analysis] Cluster Analysis]Hierarchical cluster analysis is usedto identify the clusters in the map,thus providing the means to which boundariesare drawn to identify dimensions in the point map.

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    In concept mapping, a stress indicatoris calculated in order to assess the degreeto which the map represents the grouping of the data.Research of other studies using concept mappingfound stress values ranging from 0.155 to 0.352,with the average of point 0.285.

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    High stress values suggest considerable variabilityin the way people grouped their statements.In general, stress values will be lower, for instance,the map will be the better fit.When there are more statements and more peoplerating these statements, then otherwise.Concept Mapping software allows for subgroup mean rating

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    comparisons, such as comparing perceptionsbetween substance users, community residents,and service providers.However, tests of statistical significancemust be computed using a standard statistical software.We can easily export the data into an Excel spreadsheet,which, in turn, can be imported into other statistical

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    programs.[Community Interpretation & Utilization of Maps]In concept mapping, interpretationrefers to the process by which preliminary results arepresented to a new group of research participantsso that they can interpret the mapand suggest modifications that you can add to the analysis.

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    [Interpretation.The process by which preliminary results are presented to a newgroup of research participants so that they can interpretthe map and suggest modifications to the analysis.]In this project, the point map waspresented to three separate participant groups--community residents, service providers, and substance users.These groups were convened in orderto, one, interpret the map, two, discuss potential changesto the preliminary analysis, three,

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    assign descriptive titles to the dimensions identifiedby hierarchical cluster analysis, and, four,decide how the concept map would be utilized by the community.[Participant Groups Convened To-- Interpret the map.Discuss potential changes to the preliminary analysis.the by hierarchiacal cluster analysis.Decide how the concept map would be utilized by the community.]A mobile computer, including the concept mapping software,and a projector were used to make any suggested changesto the analysis during the meeting.

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    The graduate research assistant took detailed notesabout the discussion and all changesmade to the preliminary analysis in each group.The changes were incorporated each timeand presented to the subsequent group.The interpretation meetings' noteswere then reviewed by the PI, one community member, and one

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    service provider, who met, and, through consensus, collapsedthe dimensions into themes that describedthe essence of the interpretation meetings'discussions.[Findings]The final concept mapping solutionincluded eight dimensions that, together, characterized

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    the way participants understood the dynamics and consequencesof drugs and alcohol in the community, including,one, impact of alcohol as a legal drug in society,two, street drugs, prescription drugs, what'sthe difference, three, the impact of pot on individuals,four, street power brokers, five,

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    police are part of the problem, not the solution, six, drugdealers, drug market, drug trade, seven, impact of drugson the community, and, eight, motivators and aftermathof getting high.[Eight Dimensions.Impact of alcohol as a legal drug in society.Street drugs/prescription drugs-- What is the difference?The impact of pot on individuals.Street power brokers.Police are part of the problem, not the solution.Drug dealers/drug market/drug trade. drugs the MotivatorsEach dimension has a group of statements that help understandwhat it means.For instance, in the clustering entitled

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    police are part of the problem, not the solution,we find a statement such as some police officersare involved in the drug trade.The police move through drug trade from place to place,but they do not fully address it.Or cops are practicing racial profiling.Or residents cannot count on the cops for protection.

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    These are statements reflecting the community'sstrained relationships with the police and the needto reestablish trust in order to combatdrug use and drug traffic.The findings were shared with community members,governmental officials, and publishedin peer reviewed journals.[Development of the Newark Community Collaborative Board]

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    At the conclusion of the concept mapping process,the research team was well-known by individuals in the communityand a report had been developed.During the brainstorming, sorting and rating,and interpretation sessions, the researchersintroduced CBPR principles and announcedthat at the end of the first phase

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    a community collaborative board wouldbe created to apply CBPR and findings from this researchin developing a community-based and culturallytailored intervention.Flyers were developed and distributedin the community via email and paper copies.Those responding to the flyer wereencouraged to submit an application

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    form to the research team.The application inquired about the participant's background,expertise brought to the group, and their specific interestin joining the NCCB.30 individuals were selected to serve as NCCB members.And other applicants could join meetings as guests.

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    Member selection was made based on demographic and expertisecharacteristics to ensure as much diversity as possible.[Conclusion]In conclusion, as you can see in this case study,concept mapping was a useful methodologyto create a NCCB program of research

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    by generating data about communityperceptions of community problemsand developing a strong community collaborative board.As you move forward with your project,I encourage you to consider the following questions--what kind of community individualswould you like to engage in your project?What kinds of prompts could you use in the brainstorming?

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    How many brainstorming sessions do youthink you will need to capture a broad enough representationof your community?[Reflective Questions-- What kind of community individualswould you like to engage in your project?kinds prompts could you use the brainstorming?sessions do you think you will need to capture a broad enoughrepresentation of your community?]

Video Info

Publisher: SAGE Publications Ltd

Publication Year: 2017

Video Type:Video Case

Methods: Participatory research, Participatory action research

Keywords: alcohol abuse; community action; community action boards; diversity; participatory mapping; practices, strategies, and tools; Substance abuse health-related issues; Substance use and abuse ... Show More

Segment Info

Segment Num.: 1

Persons Discussed:

Events Discussed:



Professor Liliane Windsor discusses her research on substance abuse using community-based participatory research methods. In community-based participatory research, members of the community partner with academics to conduct the research. Windsor discusses community preparation and brainstorming, her research findings, and community collaborative boards.

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Researching Substance Abuse Using Community-Based Participatory Research Methods

Professor Liliane Windsor discusses her research on substance abuse using community-based participatory research methods. In community-based participatory research, members of the community partner with academics to conduct the research. Windsor discusses community preparation and brainstorming, her research findings, and community collaborative boards.

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