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  • 00:02

    JERRY GORALNICK: Ethics of Research.

  • 00:05

    STUDENT 1: No.It's really driving me crazy.I don't know what I'm going to do.

  • 00:07

    STUDENT 2: It's kind of--

  • 00:08

    STUDENT 3: OK.We need to focus.What are we going to do our proposal on?

  • 00:13

    STUDENT 1: How on Earth am I supposedto come up with a proposal idea and getit approved at the same time?I have no idea what I'm going to do.

  • 00:20

    STUDENT 2: It's easy.Why don't we just study how heart rateis affected through exercise?

  • 00:25

    STUDENT 3: Yeah, that's been done.When you exercise, your heart rate goes up.[MUSIC PLAYING]

  • 00:33

    JERRY GORALNICK: The progress of scienceis largely based on trust that the general public hason the scientific community.When studies are published in peer review journals,people assume what is being presentedto them is true and accurate.Therefore, many ethical rules and guidelinesare put into place to ensure that this trust is maintained.

  • 00:56

    JERRY GORALNICK [continued]: The guidelines are largely determinedby funding agencies such as the National Institute of Health,and professional institutions like the American PsychologicalAssociation.However, universities or research institutesmay determine additional rules governing their own codeof ethics, as long as their requirements meet

  • 01:18

    JERRY GORALNICK [continued]: the universal ethical requirements.This program will examine three categoriesof ethical guidelines applicable to research studies-- reportingresearch, conducting research, and conflict of interest,which can be applied to both reportingand conducting research.The ethical considerations for reporting research

  • 01:40

    JERRY GORALNICK [continued]: include plagiarism, credits and citations,and falsification of data.[MUSIC PLAYING]

  • 01:52

    STUDENT 2: All right guys.I just found the perfect proposal online.It involves plants.I mean, why don't we just use this?

  • 01:58

    STUDENT 1: Are you crazy?We could get in trouble for something like that, man.

  • 02:01

    STUDENT 3: I think that's plagiarism.You just can't use someone else's proposal.

  • 02:05

    STUDENT 2: Not if we cited it and thenjust paraphrase the idea.

  • 02:08

    STUDENT 3: Nah.I think that's still plagiarism.

  • 02:10

    STUDENT 1: I'm already on probation.I don't want to get in trouble again.

  • 02:12

    STUDENT 3: Whoa.[MUSIC PLAYING]Plagiarism.Plagiarism is recording someone else's work as one's own.In some cases, plagiarism may be obvious,as in someone copying an idea published in a book, journal,essay, or the internet.

  • 02:32

    STUDENT 3 [continued]: Even more obvious is someone claiming to authora paper someone else wrote.Some examples of plagiarism include copying and pastinga paragraph that someone else wrotewithout citing the author, paraphrasinga paragraph by changing a few wordsand not citing the author, paraphrasing

  • 02:55

    STUDENT 3 [continued]: or quoting an author but not making it clearthose were his or her words.[MUSIC PLAYING]Credits and citations.People may unintentionally plagiarizeby improperly citing the source.If you are writing about an idea that you did not come up with,

  • 03:17

    STUDENT 3 [continued]: it is important to reference where that idea came from.Proper citation ensures that you are giving creditwhere credit is due and allows other readers to findwhere the original idea or discovery was published.It also validates what you are writing aboutby proving what you are saying is true.

  • 03:38

    STUDENT 3 [continued]: Citations should be used when you are quoting, paraphrasing,or summarizing someone else's idea,and you are supporting an argumentby a fact that is not general knowledge.

  • 03:51

    KATHLEEN M. SCHIAFFINO: In social sciences,the most common source that is used is the AmericanPsychological Association guidelines for publication.[Kathleen M. Schiaffino, PhD] That includes rules about kindsof aspects of the manuscript.It also tells you how to cite references.And the way APA suggests you cite references in the text

  • 04:14

    KATHLEEN M. SCHIAFFINO [continued]: is by making a statement that comes from a particular journalarticle, and then using parenthesesat the end of the sentence to putthe last name of the author or authors,followed by the date of that publication.At the very end of the manuscript,there will be a list of references

  • 04:35

    KATHLEEN M. SCHIAFFINO [continued]: and that will have, alphabetically,all of the references that you cited throughout your paperso that people can easily find the original source.

  • 04:43

    JERRY GORALNICK: Most health and medical journals,as well as some life science journals,such as Science and Nature, requirethe use of numbers as in text citations.In this is format, a number is usedafter quoting or summarizing an idea.That number corresponds to a reference listed

  • 05:04

    JERRY GORALNICK [continued]: at the end of the report.References are listed either alphabetically orchronologically as they appear in the text.

  • 05:12

    KATHLEEN M. SCHIAFFINO: If journal information is notavailable for the material that you'reusing [INAUDIBLE] internet, it's important to citeDOI or URL for that information at every opportunity.A DOI, Digital Object Identifier,is a series of numbers and/or lettersthat are associated with particular information obtained

  • 05:34

    KATHLEEN M. SCHIAFFINO [continued]: off the internet and that will be a persistent linkto the material.

  • 05:40

    JERRY GORALNICK: There are entire manuals publishedabout proper citation that are especiallyhelpful for nontraditional sources,such as works without authors or for internet sources.[MUSIC PLAYING]Falsification of data.In addition to plagiarism and citing sources,

  • 06:02

    JERRY GORALNICK [continued]: the falsification and fabrication of datais a key ethical concern in academia.Falsification of data is the manipulationor misrepresentation of data.

  • 06:14

    KATHLEEN M. SCHIAFFINO: Falsification of datacan include intentional changes in the datain order to improve the result that you obtained.It can also involve less obvious waysof improving your chances of finding significant results.

  • 06:35

    KATHLEEN M. SCHIAFFINO [continued]: For example, suppose somebody was doing a studyand they wanted to look at the effect of exerciseon performance on a mathematical test.And they give a math test, then they have people exercise,and then they retest them on the math test.And they don't find any significant differencesbefore and after the exercise.

  • 06:58

    KATHLEEN M. SCHIAFFINO [continued]: That can be very discouraging.And they might discover that if they dropped some people,they would have significant differences.Well, if there was no good reason to do that,that would be intentional falsification.However, they could go back and discoverthat some of their subjects got 100 on the test the first timeand 100 on the test the second time.

  • 07:20

    KATHLEEN M. SCHIAFFINO [continued]: And so those people really aren't providinga test of the hypothesis.If they drop those people, they might thenget significant results and they wouldhave a good reason for doing that, which they wouldreport in their manuscript.

  • 07:33

    JERRY GORALNICK: Fabrication of datais simply making up data that was never collected.A famous case involved research by the South Korean scientistHwang Woo Suk, who claimed that he had cloned human embryosand extracted stem cells from them.He was heralded as a national hero for this discovery

  • 07:55

    JERRY GORALNICK [continued]: and his paper was published in Science.Shortly afterward, however, it wasdiscovered that he had completelyfabricated this data.This had serious repercussions on the progressof therapeutic cloning.Many other laboratories had discontinued their researchon this topic, partially because Hwang Woo Suk had claimed

  • 08:17

    JERRY GORALNICK [continued]: such progress and success.

  • 08:20

    KATHLEEN M. SCHIAFFINO: Most of your good journalsuse a peer review process.People who are familiar with the work that you are doingreview the manuscript.They don't know your name.They're looking to see if the information providedmakes a case for a defensible and meaningful study.Researchers are also required by professional organizationsto keep data available for roughly five to seven years

  • 08:43

    KATHLEEN M. SCHIAFFINO [continued]: so that at any point somebody whohas some questions about findingswould have the opportunity to recheck on their own.

  • 08:51

    JERRY GORALNICK: In addition to the ethical issues involvedin reporting data, there are also ethical guidelinesfor conducting research.

  • 08:59

    STUDENT 3: Oh.Let's do something about animals.

  • 09:01

    STUDENT 1: That sounds like a good idea.

  • 09:03

    STUDENT 3: Yeah.So what are some things that we'veread that deal with animals?

  • 09:10

    STUDENT 2: Oh.We could expose a rat to rap musicand then give the rat varying amounts of poisonto see if the music made the rats stronger.

  • 09:17

    STUDENT 1: I like that idea.

  • 09:18

    STUDENT 3: No!

  • 09:19

    STUDENT 2: Thank you.

  • 09:20

    STUDENT 3: That's a horrible idea.

  • 09:21

    STUDENT 2: Well--

  • 09:22

    STUDENT 3: No.That is so unethical.Tell me, where is the scientific justification in that?

  • 09:27

    STUDENT 2: We could probably make something up.

  • 09:28

    STUDENT 3: No.You are so annoying.

  • 09:31

    STUDENT 1: Maybe we shouldn't do something with animals then.I mean, there are lot of forms, and rules, and lab permission.And I'd have to get a lab coat.

  • 09:45

    JERRY GORALNICK: Use of animals.

  • 09:49

    HAROLD TAKOOSHIAN: When it comes to the use of animalsin research, psychology and the behavioral sciences naturallyare very cautious. [Harold Takooshian, PhD] Infact, this is a separate principle--principle 10 in the APA ethics code--that any place that uses animals in research has to havean animal care committee.And of course, this is also monitoredby federal authorities, not just by psychology.

  • 10:09

    HAROLD TAKOOSHIAN [continued]: And in order for a person to use animals in research,there is a big difference betweeninvasive and noninvasive observational research.The researcher has to have prior approval of the IRBbefore doing animal research.

  • 10:26

    JERRY GORALNICK: Procedures that are generally acceptableare-- behavioral and observational studies,where animals are observed and no harm is done to the animal.Procedures that minimize discomfort are preferred.Procedures where animals are put under anesthesiaor relieved from pain during the procedure and then

  • 10:47

    JERRY GORALNICK [continued]: put to sleep before they wake up.In some medical studies, animals willbe subjected to conditions that cause long term adverse effectssuch as tissue damage.These studies require greater justificationand special supervision.If an animal is in severe pain or suffering that

  • 11:09

    JERRY GORALNICK [continued]: is uncorrectable, they must be euthanized humanely.Animals may only be used in experimentsthat are scientifically sound and designed to advanceknowledge or benefit society.It should be assumed that animals feelpain in the same way humans do.The animal's health and well-beingmust be monitored throughout the course of the study.

  • 11:32

    JERRY GORALNICK [continued]: And researchers handling the animalsmust be properly trained.Procedures performed on animals should onlybe by those qualified to do so.Animals should be housed appropriatelyaccording to USDA standards.There are also strict rules regardinghow the animals are obtained.Animals should be acquired legally, and if

  • 11:55

    JERRY GORALNICK [continued]: taken from the wild, tracked in a humane manner.When the study is finished, animalsmust be cared for properly.

  • 12:03

    STUDENT 3: Well, how about we do something involving people?Say, if diet and exercise affect levels of happiness?

  • 12:12

    STUDENT 1: OK.It seems easy enough.

  • 12:14

    STUDENT 2: Yeah, but how can you measure happiness?

  • 12:16

    STUDENT 3: OK.Well, then not happiness.Insomnia?Like, does drinking warm milk before goingto sleep help you sleep better?

  • 12:24

    STUDENT 2: OK.Like a MythBusters thing?

  • 12:25

    STUDENT 3: Yes.

  • 12:26

    STUDENT 2: I like that.Let's go with that one.

  • 12:27

    STUDENT 3: OK.So all we have to do is get the consentforms, the proper people, and get it approved.

  • 12:34

    STUDENT 1: There are a lot of rules when dealing with people.

  • 12:37

    STUDENT 3: But it's a good idea, right?

  • 12:39

    STUDENT 1: Yeah.

  • 12:39

    STUDENT 3: OK.[MUSIC PLAYING]

  • 12:44

    JERRY GORALNICK: Use of humans.In order for researchers to use humans,they must gain approval from an institutional review board.To get approval, a study has to meet some basic requirements.First of all, human participants must give informed consent.

  • 13:04

    JERRY GORALNICK [continued]: That means that subjects must knowin advance what the research will involveand agree to participate in it.They are usually educated about a study by an informed consentform.These forms must be written in a wayso that someone with a non-science backgroundhas an adequate understanding of what they

  • 13:25

    JERRY GORALNICK [continued]: are agreeing to participate in.People must also agree to participate voluntarily,without being coerced unfairly.

  • 13:33

    KATHLEEN M. SCHIAFFINO: It's generallyassumed that children less than 18 aren't, in most cases, ableto give informed consent on their own.So in those cases, parents or legal guardiansare asked to do the formal informed consent processand sign an informed consent form.Children, at the same time, would

  • 13:54

    KATHLEEN M. SCHIAFFINO [continued]: have a role in that process.They will be asked to give assent,which would mean the study would be describeto them in a way that's understandable for their agelevel.And then they verbally say whether or notthey are willing to participate.

  • 14:08

    JERRY GORALNICK: In some cases, itis necessary to mislead subjects,either by withholding informationor by active deception.And therefore, a violation of informed consent occurs.For example, there was a famous studyin which participants were told that there wassomeone in an adjacent room.

  • 14:30

    JERRY GORALNICK [continued]: And they were instructed by the investigatorto move a switch to shock that person.The participant would hear loud screamsof pain coming from the other roomas they moved the switch to higher voltages.However, that switch did not actuallyshock the person in the other room.The other person was merely an actor, screaming on queue.

  • 14:52

    JERRY GORALNICK [continued]: The study was designed to determine how far someoneis willing to subject another personto physical harm in the face of an authoritative figure.In this instance, if the participantknew that there was no one actually getting shocked thenthe study would not measure what it was intended to measure.In general, violations of informed consent

  • 15:15

    JERRY GORALNICK [continued]: are allowed if the topic is scientifically significant,there is no other way to obtain this data,and there are minimal negative effects from the deceit.[MUSIC PLAYING]Freedom from harm.

  • 15:36

    JERRY GORALNICK [continued]: Freedom from harm is another important ethical considerationwhen using humans.Participants cannot be harmed by the study in any way.Many medical studies, such as ones investigatingthe effectiveness of a drug, may not know the potential harmthat drug may cause until after the study is conducted.

  • 15:57

    JERRY GORALNICK [continued]: In these instances, informed consent formsmust be very clear about possible risks.

  • 16:03

    KATHLEEN M. SCHIAFFINO: Social sciencesand life sciences-- we usually are notconcerned with physical harm.What we're much more likely to be concerned withis psychological harm.Suppose, for example, you were doing a studywhere you had people drink a lot of caffeinein order to induce irritability and thatirritability persisted for a period of time after the study.

  • 16:26

    KATHLEEN M. SCHIAFFINO [continued]: Now, you would have to have some concernthat subjects are leaving the studyand going on with the rest of their lifeand that irritability might have some impact.So that's the kind of thing that an institutional review boardwould need to be very careful about evaluatingto make sure that no undue harm is being done to the subjects.You'd also want to debrief subjects.

  • 16:48

    JERRY GORALNICK: Debriefing oftenoccurs after an experiment when the researcher explainsthe true nature of the study and how and whythe participant was misled.The goal of debriefing is to minimize psychological harmby making the participants feel comfortable about his or herparticipation in the study.

  • 17:10

    JERRY GORALNICK [continued]: Confidentiality is another important ethical considerationand is assured to participants in research projects.The researchers make sure that informationabout a person's performance is not sharedwith anyone outside the study.In some cases, participants are assured anonymity.

  • 17:30

    STUDENT 3: OK.The important thing about our projectis that we have informed consent.No one should be harmed, and we have to ensure confidentiality.

  • 17:38

    STUDENT 2: OK.And we can compare different brands of milkto see which one helps you get to sleep faster.I mean, that'll make it more interesting.

  • 17:44

    STUDENT 1: Isn't your dad a dairy farmer?

  • 17:46

    STUDENT 2: Yeah, so?

  • 17:47

    STUDENT 3: All right.Well, that's a problem.

  • 17:49

    STUDENT 2: Why?

  • 17:49

    STUDENT 3: Because it's a conflict of interest.You're going to have a biased opinion.

  • 17:53

    STUDENT 2: Just because my dad's milkis the best doesn't mean I'm biased.

  • 17:56

    STUDENT 3: Yeah.It kinda does.

  • 17:57

    STUDENT 2: Do you know what biased means?

  • 17:59

    STUDENT 3: Can you even spell it?

  • 18:00

    STUDENT 2: Yeah.

  • 18:01

    STUDENT 3: Spell it.

  • 18:02

    STUDENT 2: B-I-S-D.

  • 18:04

    STUDENT 3: No.

  • 18:05

    JERRY GORALNICK: Conflict of interest.[MUSIC PLAYING]Conflict of interest occurs when a researcheris motivated, usually financially or in serviceof his or her professional reputation,by something other than the advancement of knowledge.

  • 18:22

    HAROLD TAKOOSHIAN: Today, we also lookin terms of conflict of interest.When the researcher's doing a study,do they have some kind of financial or other interestin the outcome?It's routine now, increasingly so, for behavioral scientiststo have to sign a statement before they accept grantsor before they undertake research,to reveal any possible conflicts of interest they

  • 18:45

    HAROLD TAKOOSHIAN [continued]: have in the research that they're doing.

  • 18:47

    JERRY GORALNICK: In order to minimize the negative effectsof conflicts of interest, universities and researchinstitutes have their own guidelines and rules regardingacceptable relationships.There are ethical considerations for reporting research,conducting research, and conflict

  • 19:09

    JERRY GORALNICK [continued]: of interest, which can be applied to both of the above.In reporting research, ethical considerationsinclude plagiarism, credits and citations, falsification,and fabrication of data.When conducting research, it is important to consider

  • 19:31

    JERRY GORALNICK [continued]: the ethical guidelines for the useof animal and human subjects.When using human subjects, the participantsshould give informed consent, be free from harm,be assured confidentiality.To assure the advancement of science,

  • 19:52

    JERRY GORALNICK [continued]: it is important to follow these ethical guidelines.

  • 19:55

    STUDENT 3: OK.So let's not compare brands of milk, types of milk,flavors of milk, family brands of milk.Let's just use regular milk.

  • 20:09

    STUDENT 1: OK.So what you're saying is that we should justtest to see if drinking warm milk before bedactually helps you sleep better?

  • 20:18

    STUDENT 3: Yes.

  • 20:19

    STUDENT 2: Wonderful.All we have to do now is start the consent forms.But there aren't any risks to drinking milk.

  • 20:25

    STUDENT 1: Except if you're lactose intolerant.

  • 20:27

    STUDENT 2: That's true.Or a vegan.

  • 20:30

    STUDENT 1: Or halal.

  • 20:31

    STUDENT 2: Or kosher.

  • 20:33

    STUDENT 3: Oh.[MUSIC PLAYING]

Video Info

Publisher: SAGE Publications, Inc

Publication Year: 2008

Video Type:Tutorial

Methods: Research ethics

Keywords: animal housing; cloning; credit; deception (lying); euthanasia; fraud; harm reduction; internet; justification; manipulation; motivation; physical hazards; plagiarism; professional organizations; psychological effects; training ... Show More

Segment Info

Segment Num.: 1

Persons Discussed:

Events Discussed:

Keywords:

Abstract

Using role-playing and interviews with experts, this video explores the ethical dilemmas that must be considered when doing research. Highlighted are issues in reporting, like plagiarism and improper citations, as well as conflicts of interest and minimizing harm during research.

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Research Ethics

Using role-playing and interviews with experts, this video explores the ethical dilemmas that must be considered when doing research. Highlighted are issues in reporting, like plagiarism and improper citations, as well as conflicts of interest and minimizing harm during research.

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