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  • 00:01

    [MUSIC PLAYING][Qualatative Data Analysis-- The 'Stop it Now!' Project]

  • 00:10

    DR. CAROLINE PASKELL: I'm Dr. Caroline Paskell.[Dr. Caroline Paskell, Research Director,Crime and Justice team at NatCen Social Research]And I'm research director in NatCen's Crime and Justiceteam.And NatCen itself is an independent researchorganization with charitable statusthat's been running for about 40 years.Primarily the crime and justice teamfocuses on work for government and third sector organizations,

  • 00:33

    DR. CAROLINE PASKELL [continued]: looking at society's understanding of crimeand justice issues and responses to it and how effectivethey may be and what opportunitiesmay be for additional crime prevention and responsein the future.The Stop it Now!Evaluation was quite an innovative research projectfor us in a number of different ways.

  • 00:53

    DR. CAROLINE PASKELL [continued]: And the purpose of the research wasto understand what contribution The Stop it Now!helpline is making towards child protectionby enabling people who have concernsabout their own potential abuse or actual abuse of childrento come forward and seek support through the helpline,

  • 01:14

    DR. CAROLINE PASKELL [continued]: both in Britain and in the Netherlands,and also what contributions made by supporting people whomay be partners of those with concernsabout their own behavior, and also helpingto inform professionals about the right way to respond.We had interviews which were conducted over the telephone.

  • 01:34

    DR. CAROLINE PASKELL [continued]: And those were with people concernedabout their own behavior towards and thoughtsabout children who had used the Stop it Now! helpline,and with people who may be partners, family, and friendsof those concerned about their own behavior.And the second strategy that we used

  • 01:56

    DR. CAROLINE PASKELL [continued]: was to conduct focus groups.And again, those were one focus groupwith people concerned about their own behavior,and one focus group with those whohad come to use the helpline becauseof the behavioral thoughts of others.And the third strategy was questionnaires.And those were available both as paper based questionnaires

  • 02:20

    DR. CAROLINE PASKELL [continued]: to provide feedback on the surfaceuse and an online questionnaire that replicated what wasavailable in the paper form.

  • 02:28

    ASHLEY BROWN: I'm Ashley Brown, research director at NatCen.[Ashley Brown, Senior Researcher,Crime and Justice Team at NatCen Social Research]My job involves delivering and managing research projects.And so that would involve working with our clientsto design projects that meet their needs,overseeing and being involved in the research process--so carrying out interviews, recruiting participants,analyzing the data, and presenting findings of the work

  • 02:50

    ASHLEY BROWN [continued]: we do.I'm going to meet with my colleagueCaroline Paskell who's been closely involvedin all aspects of the research process.I saw through from overseeing participants,from doing interviews.And she was heavily involved in arranging the disseminationevent that we carried out for the study.It's usually at the end for projectto reflect on what worked well and what was challenging,

  • 03:10

    ASHLEY BROWN [continued]: and also to drive lessons for future research.I think on of the things I've been reflecting onis the use of different types of research approaches.So a more kind of structured typically quantitative approachin the questionnaire versus the more flexible qualitativemethods, and should we do this research again,whether we'd use that combination.And my view is that certainly yes,

  • 03:32

    ASHLEY BROWN [continued]: that both from a methodological perspectiveit's helpful because it gives youdifferent types of data, but also from pragmaticprospective.People have different preferences, again,about how they want to engage.And some people respond very well justto structured questions and less wellto a more fluid interview approach.And from a pragmatic perspective, if you offer both,

  • 03:53

    ASHLEY BROWN [continued]: you're going to maximize the range of people that take partin your study, which will mean that your studies aremore reflective of the range of [INAUDIBLE] that exist.

  • 04:00

    DR. CAROLINE PASKELL: And I think especiallyabout the range of engagement momements--so this research was conducted with peoplewho may have been using the helpline for a number of years.And also using the more structured questionnaireenabled people who perhaps had perhaps only had a passingengagement-- perhaps it was their first time usingthe helpline-- they were also able to contribute

  • 04:21

    DR. CAROLINE PASKELL [continued]: to the research by giving their feedback.Whereas they may counted themselves outof a depth interview because they may notfelt they had enough to give feedback on.But actually as we saw, having that additional researchstrategy enabled us to hear from them as well.

  • 04:36

    ASHLEY BROWN: Certainly.

  • 04:37

    DR. CAROLINE PASKELL: The helpline is delivered primarilyover the telephone.There is also email access, but most people's first and primarycontact is with the telephone.So for us trying to engage with helpline users,replicating the way in which they had used the helplinemade sense.But there were other things that using

  • 04:58

    DR. CAROLINE PASKELL [continued]: the telephone offered, and primarilya degree of anonymity.And this is really, really important,both for the helpline itself and for usseeking to engage people in the research,enabling them to know that as with the helpline use,their identity would be protected

  • 05:21

    DR. CAROLINE PASKELL [continued]: from being exposed through the research was really important.The telephone interviews were focused primarilyon people who used the service for their own support,and secondarily with people who hadcome to use the service because of concernsabout the thoughts and behavior of others.

  • 05:42

    DR. CAROLINE PASKELL [continued]: So an example might be that we would speak with a person whohad been identified by police for looking at abuseimages of children online.They'd then come to use the serviceto enable them to cope with the fallout

  • 06:03

    DR. CAROLINE PASKELL [continued]: from this, to understand their own thoughts, behaviors,and how they might move forward in their life.And also we would conduct the telephone interviewwith the partner of people in that sort of situationto understand what the helpline was offering to them in termsof the way that they could come to terms with what had happened

  • 06:27

    DR. CAROLINE PASKELL [continued]: and ensure that they were protecting any children asappropriate, and enabling them to haveto save space talk about this in a waythey might not be able to do with friends and familymembers.The degree of anonymity which is offered to people telephoningthe helpline needed to be replicated in the researchthat we were conducting in order to ensure that people felt

  • 06:50

    DR. CAROLINE PASKELL [continued]: comfortable to participate.And the telephone offered that degree of anonymityso that people could feel confidentthat their identity was protectedand from being revealed during the research.So that was specific to this research.But doing telephone interviews also offers people

  • 07:11

    DR. CAROLINE PASKELL [continued]: a degree of flexibility and convenience, which we findrelates to other forms of research that we do as well.Even where it isn't, say, sensitive,people often welcome the ability to arrange a televisioninterview that fits with their busy schedule,whether looking after children or in work.

  • 07:32

    DR. CAROLINE PASKELL [continued]: So that's an additional feature thatcame to bear on this research but also worksfor other studies.There can be an additional burden on the interviewerto ensure that they are satisfied that it's ethicallyappropriate to interview the person at that timeover the telephone.And that needs to be gauged throughout the durationof the interview.

  • 07:53

    DR. CAROLINE PASKELL [continued]: So it may be about appropriate pacing,making sure that the participant is offereda number of occasions to opt out of the interviewif they feel that perhaps the setting may have changed.The person may been disturbed by somebody else cominginto the room.Or if their emotion seems to have fluctuated,

  • 08:14

    DR. CAROLINE PASKELL [continued]: to ensure that throughout their participationremains voluntary so they didn't feel that they'reobligated to continue.So it's really important that the intervieweris listening to the tone of the participant's conversationas well as what they're saying, and judgingfrom that whether it's ethical to continueor whether it might be appropriate to offer

  • 08:37

    DR. CAROLINE PASKELL [continued]: for the remainder of the interviewto be rearranged on some other occasion.People are very familiar with telephone interviews.But ordinarily we would think of them, primarily,as being about maybe a survey interview or somethingwhere the subject matter is less sensitive.

  • 08:52

    ASHLEY BROWN: And more structured discussiontakes place.

  • 08:54

    DR. CAROLINE PASKELL: Yeah, indeed.I think this has really shown that whereexperienced researchers are able to conduct the interview,are familiar with the subject matter,and are well supported with appropriate proceduresand pacing, then the telephone itselfis a good medium for using in this kind of interview.

  • 09:15

    DR. CAROLINE PASKELL [continued]: And already I've spoken with other clientsabout quite different types of researchand being able to reassure them that actuallythe telephone would be a very powerful way of conductinginterviews.

  • 09:27

    ASHLEY BROWN: We chose focus groupsfor the Stop it Now! study because in our experience,some people prefer to engage in research through a groupsetting rather than a one to one interview.We find that's true even on very sensitive studieslike the Stop it Now! work.It works particularly well where your participants are alreadyfamiliar with discussing the issue in a group setting

  • 09:48

    ASHLEY BROWN [continued]: and where the participants are comfortableand know one another already.The focus groups work best when your participantshave something in common.So for example, a shared experience.So we chose to run two types of focus groups,one with people who had accessed child sexual abuseimages online, and a second group with the partnersand families of people who had accessed those images.Everybody who took part in our focus groups

  • 10:10

    ASHLEY BROWN [continued]: was already accessing group based supportfrom the Lucy Faithfull Foundation, whoare the organization that run the Stop it Now! helpline.So that meant the participants were already comfortabletalking about those sorts of issues in a group setting.And they were given the option of a one to one interviewif they didn't feel comfortable coming to our group.The focus groups took place at a private, comfortable,

  • 10:30

    ASHLEY BROWN [continued]: and convenient location.They last around and hour and a half,and there was about eight people in each of the groups.And they were, for accuracy, audiorecorded and transcribed word for word.And they were carried out using topic guides.Now these are documents which list the topics that willbe covered in a focus group.As it's qualitative research, they're used very flexibly.

  • 10:52

    ASHLEY BROWN [continued]: So that means that the precise question wording and the orderin which topics were covered varied between the focusgroups.Interviews are most commonly usedwhen doing qualitative research on sensitive topicsbecause the private setting of the one to onemakes people feel comfortable.They engage.The open up.But this research study shows that thereare some circumstances in which people actually

  • 11:12

    ASHLEY BROWN [continued]: want to talk about these sorts of issues in a group setting.But as I said, it's really importantthat you give them a choice of whether theyspeak to you in a group setting or privately one to one.And you also need to think reallycarefully about the composition of that group.So will the presence of certain peopledeter your participants from talking openly and honestly?For this study, we used the framework approach,

  • 11:33

    ASHLEY BROWN [continued]: which is a case and theme based approach to analysis.So that enabled us to comprehensivelyand consistently look at the dataand meant that we could map out the full range in viewsof the helpline that were expressed by thosewho took part in our studies.Given the sensitivity of the topic areaand the potential barriers to taking part,we wanted to enable people to engage with the researchas far as possible.

  • 11:55

    ASHLEY BROWN [continued]: So we gave them a range of options in orderthat they can choose the one that best meets their needsand preferences.

  • 11:60

    DR. CAROLINE PASKELL: I know in the focus groupsthat you were doing, they were sortof groups that had coalesced for a particular purpose.But we were speaking also about the waythat this research has taught us about whatyou need to check when you are going to conduct focus groups.

  • 12:16

    ASHLEY BROWN: Yeah, I think it's justbeing, again, where the people have very different practicesof how they want to engage with you,and that even people who already take part in a group settingthrough a support group or something elsemay actually prefer to engage in the researchone to one rather than a focus group.And I think it's never assuming.It's constantly just checking with your participantsabout how they wish to engage with you.

  • 12:37

    ASHLEY BROWN [continued]: We decided to design three versions of the questionnairein order that the questions were appropriatefor the different groups who use the Stop it Now! helpline.So the first questionnaire was for peoplewho have accessed child sexual abuse images online.The second versions was for the family and friends of peoplewho'd accessed those images.And the third version was for professionalswho support either victims or survivors of child

  • 12:58

    ASHLEY BROWN [continued]: sexual abuse.The research involved 47 people via interviews or focus groups.And 112 people completed our questionnaire, either a paperversion or the online version.So I think one of the biggest challengeswith the questionnaire aspect is that we wanted the questionsto be specific and relevant to the topic area,but we also had to be mindful that we didn't want

  • 13:19

    ASHLEY BROWN [continued]: the question wording to cause additional distress to peopletaking part, or to in fact deter them from completingthe questionnaire altogether.So we worked really closely with our specialist questiondesigners at NatCen in order to come up with question wordingthat both met their research objectives whilstbeing ethical and sensitive.We were really careful to ensure that when we reportedthe results of the questionnaire,

  • 13:40

    ASHLEY BROWN [continued]: not to imply that they were statistically representativeof all the user of the Stop it Now! helpline,given the sample of the people who took part in our research.But what we did do was to enable usto engage with, as well as possible, numberof helpline users.And they enhanced the research in that way.

  • 13:57

    DR. CAROLINE PASKELL: Some of the thingsI was thinking we could learn for sort of internaland broader dissemination is about those points we werementioning earlier, the importance of acknowledginghow time consuming this kind of research can be.

  • 14:12

    ASHLEY BROWN: Absolutely.

  • 14:13

    DR. CAROLINE PASKELL: As you were saying,the potential time taken to enable peopleto participate, there may be longpauses between any of the uptake.

  • 14:25

    ASHLEY BROWN: I think as well this researchemphasizes the importance of investing time[INAUDIBLE] the project and buildingrelationships with people who will be doing[INAUDIBLE] for you, the gatekeeper organizations,thinking through your disclosure policy.What will you do it you're concerned about harm to someoneelse, that you think through your [INAUDIBLE]really carefully so that they're wording in a way

  • 14:45

    ASHLEY BROWN [continued]: that people are encouraged to take part in your project.All of that is well time, and time that's well invested.

  • 14:52

    DR. CAROLINE PASKELL: I think it'simportant to remember the importance of holdingon to investment of time when therecan be such pressures on resources,that that is what's going to makethis project successful in what it can find,because it will respond to the needs and the natureof the research material.

  • 15:13

    ASHLEY BROWN: The formal stage of the projecthas come to a close.So we have disseminated our findingsthrough written reports, through articles in the trade press,through a conference that I brought together partnersfrom across Europe.And we're still at the stage of following upon other publications such as journal articles.It is possible to do research in this topic area,

  • 15:34

    ASHLEY BROWN [continued]: but that you need to ensure that you use a wide range of methodsin order that you can tailor your researchto the specific needs of the different populationsthat you want to engage, and that you reallydo have to be both flexible to people's needsand sensitive in the way in which you go about conductingyour research.[MUSIC PLAYING]


Dr. Caroline Paskell and Ashley Brown reflect on a recent study they did on the Stop it Now! project. The project works to support and divert people who have inappropriate sexual impulses toward children, and it provides help and resources for the family and friends of these people.

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Qualitative Data Analysis: The 'Stop it Now!' Project

Dr. Caroline Paskell and Ashley Brown reflect on a recent study they did on the Stop it Now! project. The project works to support and divert people who have inappropriate sexual impulses toward children, and it provides help and resources for the family and friends of these people.

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