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  • 00:00


  • 00:12

    CHARLES CUI: Hello.I'm Professor Charles Cui from Northumbria University UnitedKingdom, Newcastle City, actually.My special area is in marketing and marketingresearch and consumer research.I'm going to discuss today the survey method.This is the most popular method taught at the University,but interestingly, most often misunderstood method.

  • 00:40

    CHARLES CUI [continued]: So I will share some of my experience from my teaching.Actually, I became interested in this methodfrom my PhD research, actually, master degree research.I used the survey method, and I reada lot of books and researched articlesabout how to design and conduct researchusing the survey method.

  • 01:10

    CHARLES CUI [continued]: Through this process, I learned quite a lot from the scholarsand from managers.And I realized this is a very important tool, of course,if we understand it correctly.This method is most suitable for the research questions,actually broad research questions, a range of questionsabout attitudes, about perceptions,and including the responses of the participantstowards something.

  • 01:49

    CHARLES CUI [continued]: Like for example, if you like this brand, whyyou like this brand, what do you like this brand about,things like that.So for this kind of research, and also a typical survey,research method is used for so-called cross-sectionalresearch design, which means you gather a large sum of datawithin a very short period of time, normally.

  • 02:18

    CHARLES CUI [continued]: And so that is why it's called cross-sectional research,because you don't have the allowanceto do a very long period of data collection.We have some practical constraints,so this is why survey research methods can serve this purpose.

  • 02:43

    CHARLES CUI [continued]: Data types, normally, you could use a survey methodto gather data about, for example, yesor no type of questions, and alsoranking questions, like how do you rank this apple?Very sweet, not sweet at all, or even better.Or you can rank your attitudes towards like the apple.

  • 03:08

    CHARLES CUI [continued]: Do you like the red-colored, or yellow-colored, green-colored?Why is that?Is from your experience, or from experience of child food,or from the recent couple of years, or from a holiday trip.So these types of questions can be measured.We call it using multiple items about your overall perceptionabout your consumption experience,about consuming apple.

  • 03:36

    CHARLES CUI [continued]: And so there's multiple items.Each item is converted into a question type of statementin the instrument we call the questionnaire.And this is where I like to emphasize that very oftenmisunderstanding happens from here, that very often,from my experience, that when students firstcome across this type of research,they, of course, have heard a lot about the questionnaire,or questionnaire survey, and the two terms sometimesused together.

  • 04:13

    CHARLES CUI [continued]: Actually, basically, they mean the same thing,which means a questionnaire is the instrument.And that's why I emphasize using the surveyto start my conversation, is the surveycan be understood as overall research design.This design would involve, eventually,a questionnaire, which is the instrument.

  • 04:35

    CHARLES CUI [continued]: Like you want to carry out a piece of research,but you have some questions laid down on a piece of paper.That piece of paper that consists of a set of questionsis called a questionnaire.But that piece of paper does not mean a survey.And survey, also involves, after data collection,you analyze the data, normally, using quantitative methods.

  • 05:01

    CHARLES CUI [continued]: But of course, there are some exceptional cases.Qualitative research also uses questionnaire.That's why we have to be careful in understanding the conceptof survey and questionnaire.Use the survey to gather the data, whichmeans you gather the data responses from large sampleof people or participants.

  • 05:31

    CHARLES CUI [continued]: And in order to gather the data, weneed to design a standardized set of questions.This set of standardized questionstogether is called questionnaire.And also, we teach students to becareful about when you collect in the sample, in a survey,that cross-cultural differences may arise.

  • 05:54

    CHARLES CUI [continued]: For example, last night, I went to a Mexican restaurant.And towards the end, I asked the waitress, can I have my bill?And immediately I realized, no, theydon't use the term bill here.They use a check.And so we both laughed.And so the same term in the questionnaire,you use two different samples.

  • 06:15

    CHARLES CUI [continued]: So you to establish what is calleda conceptual equivalence.In other words, when we talk about Apple with participantsfrom China, for example, versus participants from the UnitedStates, or from the United Kingdom,we have to understand that overall characteristics,or attributes, you call them, about Appleis understood in the same way.

  • 06:40

    CHARLES CUI [continued]: And for that reason, in order for this consistencyof understanding of the meaning for the survey design,the most important first step is to define.In other words, give a clear, consistent definitionof the concepts that are used to describe certain phenomenaof your research interest.

  • 07:10

    CHARLES CUI [continued]: I'm working on the project with my colleague, Mona Mrad,from Lebanon on the brand addiction.So from the literature research, weunderstand most of the definition about addictionis based on psychological studies, psychiatric kindof research, which mainly focused on the drugaddiction, alcohol addiction.

  • 07:35

    CHARLES CUI [continued]: However, we understand, no, we cannot use that definition,because our observation about consumption experience is abouthow people are highly passionate about a certain brand.And this is completely different from the drug addiction,alcohol addiction.In other words, brand addiction does not involve taking drugs.

  • 07:56

    CHARLES CUI [continued]: And so therefore, we have to use focus group, aska group of people individually, and all together asa group, what you mean when you feelyou are addicted to a brand.So they would explain, "well, you know,I keep these kind of brands.Like Apple or Sony is in my mind 24 hours.

  • 08:17

    CHARLES CUI [continued]: In the night, I would wake up and checkthe website, what's going on?And I know every year in September,for example, Apple is going to have a new productrelease, a news event.And I keep checking the website every day.So this is how I feel like I'm really totally addictedto this brand".Another interesting observation from our focus groupis that when people think about a brand,people immediately think about followingthe negative definition of the drug addiction, whichmeans you're going to end up into problems in your life.

  • 08:51

    CHARLES CUI [continued]: Actually, from a focus group, most peoplewere happy, very happy about their life.So we asked, "why are you so happy?"."Because we find the brand we lovethat fulfills our kind of passion about somethinginteresting in our life".So when would ask, "do you think you're going to end upinto debt?".And most people-- exception, though.

  • 09:12

    CHARLES CUI [continued]: Focus groups, by the way, cannot be generalized.But at least most people say, "not really.You know, I can save the money.Don't buy anything until I have enough moneyto buy the brand I love".So this is very different from other types of--like a compulsive buyer.Compulsive buyers normally don't have a clear mind how much debtthey might end up.

  • 09:37

    CHARLES CUI [continued]: They just want to buy, keep buying, keep buying.But most often from the research report,they are not particularly focused on one type of brand.So this is very different from the brand addictionwe are researching. this type of brand addictive behavioris focused on one particular brand, not other brands.So even other brands cut down the prices,compete with the price.

  • 09:58

    CHARLES CUI [continued]: "No, I'm not going to buy, even if it's cheaper.I will stick to my brand, even though it's very expensive".To an extent some of the participants of focus groupexplained and told us that they are so passionate about brand,even they invest their own money into this, like Apple, Sony,like other luxury brands.

  • 10:20

    CHARLES CUI [continued]: Well, you ask them why."Well, because they love this brand.It's like my relationship.And I want to support the brand Iwant to see how it can be more successful in the future".So that's kind of a degree of, we call,close brand, consumer brand, relationship.They are so addicted.In this sense, addiction means highly psychologically,passionately, emotionally involved in the brand.

  • 10:54

    CHARLES CUI [continued]: Yes.For the survey methods, I would highly recommend studentsto start with, first of all, lookat some of the typical textbooks about how to design a survey,especially for a little bit higher-level studies, books,like published by Joseph Hair and his colleagues, whichis titled Multivariate Data Analysis.

  • 11:18

    CHARLES CUI [continued]: But practically, if you want to lookat many of the established, tested,valid measurement scales, one of the books I would highlyrecommend, published by SAGE, the Handbook of MarketingMeasurement Scales.I use, personally, over many, many years for my research,for teaching my students.You can look at them, each of the scale,they have a very clear, crystal clear detailed descriptionhow the scale was developed, and how the scale was tested,how the sale could be used.

  • 11:49

    CHARLES CUI [continued]: So this handbook will give you a varying insight, knowledge,rich knowledge, to start with.


Professor Charles Cui, Northumbria University, discusses the use of survey methods for market research, including data collection and analysis, designing surveys, and helpful tools and resources.

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Demystifying Survey Methods for Market Research

Professor Charles Cui, Northumbria University, discusses the use of survey methods for market research, including data collection and analysis, designing surveys, and helpful tools and resources.

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