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  • 00:05

    DR. ZINA O'LEARY: Core Skills for New Researchers.How to communicate during the research process.Communication is always going to be somethingthat can be enhanced and utilized,and research is no exception.In this video, we're going to be lookingat the meaning of effective communication, howeffective communication can enhance the research process.

  • 00:25

    DR. ZINA O'LEARY [continued]: We're going to look at strategies for buildingopenness and trust.And then we're going to look at influence and persuasion,particularly looking at the ABCs of that, which is awareness,belief, and clarity.All right, communication, core skill, absolutely essentialin research.[Dr. Zina O'Leary, Senior Fellow,The Australia and New Zealand School of Government (ANZSOG)]So what do we mean when we talk about effective communication?

  • 00:47

    DR. ZINA O'LEARY [continued]: Well for me there's two things that are incredibly important.One is the recognition that this is a two-way process.Too often in research we're thinkingabout communicating to others.I'll give you an example.In conducting an interview, we spend most of our timethinking about the questions we're going to ask,where what we should be thinking about

  • 01:08

    DR. ZINA O'LEARY [continued]: is how we're going to facilitate a respondent's abilityto answer.Because it is a two-way process.As much as you want to speak, it is the importanceof the listening that is critical in researchor in any type of communication.I've been accused of this and it's true,

  • 01:28

    DR. ZINA O'LEARY [continued]: that sometimes when I'm communicating with someone,rather than really listening to what they're saying,I'm thinking about what I can say next.So I'm thinking over them rather than listening to them.And the ability to listen is, I believe,a more crucial element in communication

  • 01:49

    DR. ZINA O'LEARY [continued]: than the actual speaking.Because how will you know what to sayif you haven't onboarded what the other person is saying?So it is that two-way communicationthat is effective.It means that what you say is being received.It's being received, it's being processed in the wayyou intend it, and that what that person then gives back

  • 02:10

    DR. ZINA O'LEARY [continued]: is received by you in a way that is true to what they meant.Back and forth, back and forth.And that is actually a skill that is not necessarilyinherent for everyone.That communication, we think that talking is communication,and it's not.So if you can really work on your communication skills,

  • 02:30

    DR. ZINA O'LEARY [continued]: it's going to be something that willbe instrumental throughout your research process.So when you're thinking about problem identification.Problem identification, it may be a problem situationthat you know from your own experience.It may be a problem situation that you know through reading.

  • 02:51

    DR. ZINA O'LEARY [continued]: But to really hone in to problems and what's going on,you need to listen, you need to watch, you need to ask.So those communication skills about whatis going on here, what is happening for you,what does it feel like, what do youthink the critical factors are?To be able to ask those types of questionsand really draw out the significance of a problem

  • 03:15

    DR. ZINA O'LEARY [continued]: situation is so important.And this is something that can be quite delicate.You can't go to someone and ask themabout a problem in a way that is offensive, in a way thatputs them offside.So what's the problem with your organization,may not be the way to address it.Sometimes we need to substitute the word challenge,for example.What challenges does your organization face?

  • 03:37

    DR. ZINA O'LEARY [continued]: Much less offensive, much less off-putting.One of the things that's really easyto do in communication, and in research communication,is to make people feel defensive.As soon as someone feels defensive, they shut down.They're not honest, they're not open.So that ability to ask in a way that opens people up

  • 03:60

    DR. ZINA O'LEARY [continued]: rather than shuts them down is so important.And this will continue when you'rethinking about data collection.When you want to collect data from someone,let's say you're doing an interview.It's also true for survey in the way you word questions,but in interview even more so.How do you build trust?How do you become that person that someone else can

  • 04:23

    DR. ZINA O'LEARY [continued]: listen to, and respond to in a way whereI don't have to hide myself?How can you facilitate the other's ability to talk to you?And that's all about effective communication.And we'll talk more about strategies for buildingopenness and trust in a minute.Dissemination, you want to have an really impactful

  • 04:45

    DR. ZINA O'LEARY [continued]: presentation.So that effective communication is reallyabout hitting your audience.I talk a lot about presentation and presentation skills.And one of the things that's criticalis that you remember that you're almosthaving a conversation with your audience.There's three levels when you're giving a presentation.There's talking at someone.

  • 05:07

    DR. ZINA O'LEARY [continued]: You know, when someone's just talking at you.They don't care that you're there,they don't care what you think.They're just talking at you.And then there are people who talk to you,and that's not bad.But the best communicators are talking with you.They're actually in a two-way conversationeven if you're not saying anything.So at, to, and with, you want to go for the with.So that that person is with you, along for the ride,

  • 05:30

    DR. ZINA O'LEARY [continued]: and they're buying into your agenda.So that really is effective communication.Implementation of your research.Let's say you do a research project, you get findings,you get conclusions, you make recommendations.Are those recommendations going to be taken up?Well, effective communication can go a long way

  • 05:52

    DR. ZINA O'LEARY [continued]: in trying to get that to happen.Because you need to have political nous.You need to know who to speak to, when to talk to them.You need to be primed about what the problem situation isand how your research and recommendations are goingto help in that situation.So knowing how to communicate that politically,at the right time and place is all effective communication,

  • 06:16

    DR. ZINA O'LEARY [continued]: and the work of it.And finally, career progression.Once you have a wide range of skillsthat you've developed through research,you really want to be able to sell these skills.You want to be able to say, hey, this is what I learned.This is how I am going to be an asset to your organization.

  • 06:37

    DR. ZINA O'LEARY [continued]: This is how I will continue to be an effective researcher.This is how I will add value.You need to be able to sell yourself.There's a great book out there by Dan Pinkcalled, To Sell is Human.And he suggests that we are constantlyin the business of influencing others.

  • 06:57

    DR. ZINA O'LEARY [continued]: And your career progression can beenhanced by effectively communicating your own skillset.So what are some strategies for building openness and trust?Well, openness is the final dimension of trust,and it is something which allows you to rely on a personto give you the full truth.

  • 07:17

    DR. ZINA O'LEARY [continued]: Now let's think about that.When you're interviewing, is there anything more critical?Give you the full truth.Now, what is the full truth?Gee, it can be hard to get at, because peopleare so used to a certain presentation of selfthat's necessary.So if you go to the CEO to ask himwhat's happening in a company, he'slikely to give you the party line.If you go into a family and ask why

  • 07:42

    DR. ZINA O'LEARY [continued]: a child is struggling at school, you may not get at the truth.You may not get it, what's going on behind the scenes.And the only way to really figure outwhy something is doing something, why somethingis happening, is to have that passionate curiosity,have that ignorance, and have that desire to want to know.

  • 08:04

    DR. ZINA O'LEARY [continued]: And the way we do that is by being absolutely genuine.If people sense that you're not there because you want to know,but you're there to progress your career,or for research purposes, not genuine curiosity,they're not as likely to be open.So you really want to know.If I wanted to understand why someone went into prostitution,

  • 08:28

    DR. ZINA O'LEARY [continued]: and I asked the question and they heard me say,why in the world would you do that?Why would they answer me?But if they heard me say, wow, I am so fascinated by your story.I want to know what the reality for you is,and how you decided to go down this path,because I don't understand and I want to.

  • 08:49

    DR. ZINA O'LEARY [continued]: If you have that passionate curiosityand you actually really want to know,and you give someone an invitation to talk,often they will.They probably haven't been asked about their lives.They haven't been asked what's important to them,or why it is, or what happened.And they want to tell their story,as long as they're not feeling judged.

  • 09:10

    DR. ZINA O'LEARY [continued]: So that genuineness is so important.And being open yourself, sharing a little bit of your storyas well.You don't want to be someone that's coldand calculating, and doing your processand expecting someone else to lay itall on the line when you're not even reacting as another human.

  • 09:31

    DR. ZINA O'LEARY [continued]: So having openness just in your expression, your body language.And we meet people like this all the time.They're totally shut down.We don't want to open up to them.And other people are just open and youwant to communicate with them.So strategies for openness and trustare really about curiosity, passion, genuineness,

  • 09:52

    DR. ZINA O'LEARY [continued]: and openness.One of the other elements of effective communicationis our desire to be influential and persuasive.A lot of our communication is actuallyabout trying to influence others,whether it be trying to get them to agree to be in the research,or trying to get someone to take up our recommendations.

  • 10:12

    DR. ZINA O'LEARY [continued]: A lot of what we do is about persuasion.Now if you want to be persuasive,I'm going to give you the ABCs of persuasion.Now, when I was in sales, this waswhen I first graduated university,we had the ABCs of sales.And that was how we had to persuade others.And the ABCs were Always Be Closing.

  • 10:35

    DR. ZINA O'LEARY [continued]: So another way to think about ABCs, because now we'reall trying to be persuasive.So A, awareness, be aware.What's the reality of the situation for thoseyou're trying to influence?What's going on in their world, their personal world,their political world?What's the reality for them?Am I aware of what's going on for them?

  • 10:56

    DR. ZINA O'LEARY [continued]: So I'm not just bumbling over their reality.And I might come from a different class background,I might come from a different educational background.Am I being very klutzy and maybe judgmental,or am I aware of where they are so that I can't be respectful?The B is belief.Do I believe in what I'm asking?

  • 11:17

    DR. ZINA O'LEARY [continued]: Do I believe in the value of my research?Do I believe in the value of my recommendations?Do I believe in my value, if I'm tryingto sell myself into a job on the basis of my research?Do I actually believe what I'm saying?If you don't sound genuine, if you don't have the belief,then others won't.One of the things I tend to say is,

  • 11:38

    DR. ZINA O'LEARY [continued]: you cannot expect me to believe in you more than you believein yourself.So that belief is so important to share.Finally, the C is clarity.Be clear, be precise, be succinct.What is your message, and how can you get it acrossin the sharpest way possible?

  • 11:59

    DR. ZINA O'LEARY [continued]: People don't have time for a lot of airy fairy stuff.So that clarity.Awareness, belief, and clarity is a good formulafor being persuasive.So the things to remember with effective communication,it is a two-way process.It is about listening and making sure your message is heard,and that you're responding back to what people are saying you.

  • 12:22

    DR. ZINA O'LEARY [continued]: Effective communication is about trust, openness, being genuine.And it's also about your ability to influence othersby being aware of what's going on for them,having the belief in your own message,and having the clarity when you're discussing it.

Video Info

Series Name: Core Skills for New Researchers

Publisher: SAGE Publications Ltd

Publication Year: 2018

Video Type:Tutorial

Methods: Researcher skills

Keywords: awareness; communication styles; influence (psychology); influence and persuasion; listening skills; openness and honesty; trust; trust (psychology) ... Show More

Segment Info

Segment Num.: 1

Persons Discussed:

Events Discussed:



Dr. Zina O'Leary discusses effective communication, strategies for openness and trust, and the ABC's of influence and persuasion.

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Core Skills for New Researchers: How to Communicate During the Research Process

Dr. Zina O'Leary discusses effective communication, strategies for openness and trust, and the ABC's of influence and persuasion.

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