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  • 00:02


  • 00:07

    NARRATOR: Essays, reports, and assignments at collegeneed a bibliography, and this is the first movie on the subject.Maybe print out the text version beforehand,so you can add notes as you listen.So first, what is it?It's a list of all the books, articles, websites, et cetera,that you used for your essay.

  • 00:29

    NARRATOR [continued]: There are different styles and this unitcovers four main ones--Harvard, APA, MLA, and MHRA--but always follow your department guide exactlyfor any variations.To make the list in whatever style,certain key information is needed.

  • 00:49

    NARRATOR [continued]: For a book, its author surname, first name or initial,year of publication, book title, city of publication,and publisher.So let's look at where exactly to find this informationin a typical book.The surname or family name will be on the cover

  • 01:10

    NARRATOR [continued]: and is the second full word onwards.The fist full word is the first name,and this is always the order on Western books--first name and then surname.The year will be on the inside page somewhere.The title will obviously be on the cover.

  • 01:32

    NARRATOR [continued]: And the city of publication will be inside.And a few things to remember about this one--two cities, not countries, and if there are a few,choose the city nearest to you.And last the publisher--this should be very easy to find,so don't mix it up with the printer, which is sometimes

  • 01:53

    NARRATOR [continued]: below.It's probably on the cover and probably inside too.So next, arrange this informationinto a list on a separate page at the end of your essay.This list can have different names,

  • 02:14

    NARRATOR [continued]: so bibliography, reference list, references, or workscited, so use whichever one your college prefers.They are often all the same thing,but some colleges use bibliographyto mean a general list of anythingyou read, then reference list or work cited

  • 02:37

    NARRATOR [continued]: to mean just those books, et cetera,that you quoted in your essay.The main thing to realize is that thereare different styles for setting out this listand this means the order and the punctuation.So let's start with Harvard.

  • 02:58

    NARRATOR [continued]: It go surname, initial or first name, year in brackets,title in italics, city of publication, then publisher.And notice the punctuation.

  • 03:18

    NARRATOR [continued]: APA is very similar, but there is an extra full stopor period, plus add the country, or it'sin America, the two letter state abbreviation.MLA uses the surname, then full first name, not initial,

  • 03:39

    NARRATOR [continued]: then puts the year near the end, plus says what type of sourceit is, like here, print.Other times it would be web, interview, TV program,et cetera.MHRA is very similar, but has brackets around the publicationdetails, commas to separate parts,

  • 04:03

    NARRATOR [continued]: and no full stop or period at the end.And remember, each college might have their own variationson the styles anyway, so no bracketaround the date for example, in Harvard.You really don't need to learn all this,just get the department going and follow it exactly,

  • 04:24

    NARRATOR [continued]: because to get the bibliography wrongis seen as lazy, unprofessional, and rude.Now, let's look at a few extras.Firstly, what if there is more than onesurname, year, or title?Well for surname, always used the second full word onwards.

  • 04:46

    NARRATOR [continued]: So if it continues like here, that is also the surname.One letter on its own is the initialof the middle name, which many writers don't have, thenlist the office in the order they come on the book.So here, Franklin, then Wilson-Duff, then de Pleave.

  • 05:09

    NARRATOR [continued]: Next, what if there is more than one year?Well, just use the last one.And what if there seems to be more than one title?Well, just use the biggest one.This one is a series title and smaller.And one last thing on titles--

  • 05:30

    NARRATOR [continued]: remember to put them in italics, but don't copy in capitals.In Harvard and APA, you usually capitalize just the first wordand also proper nouns.In MLA and MHRA, you usually capitalize every main wordand again, proper nouns.

  • 05:53

    NARRATOR [continued]: OK, next, what is an editor?It's someone who arranges a book,so it's not necessarily an author.So look for edited by or editors on the cover.And what is edition?This is when the book has changed,

  • 06:15

    NARRATOR [continued]: so look for second, third edition, et cetera, inside.Ignore reprinted, this just meansthe book was printed again without changes.So finally, this is how the bibliography entries look.A few things to note.See the and symbol before the last name in this style,

  • 06:40

    NARRATOR [continued]: and see the normal name order for all the other namesin these styles.So not Wilson-Duff HR, But Hank R. Wilson-Duff.See how the title is in italics and no longer in full capitals.And here is editors and here is edition.

  • 07:05

    NARRATOR [continued]: And lastly, the country added in APA.Again, note all the punctuation.Get it right and remember you don't need to learn all this,just copy it.And a few last things.Put your list in alphabetical order like this,so D comes before F. Maybe indent after the first line

  • 07:31

    NARRATOR [continued]: and maybe double space--this all makes it much easier to read.And finally et al.You can use this to replace a whole string of names,but don't do this in APA style.

  • 07:51

    NARRATOR [continued]: So that's the basics of bibliographiesand use the guide attached to this unitto help, but be aware that many colleges havetheir own variations of each style, so always adapt.Follow your department guide exactlyand use software if you can.For examples, Zotero and EndNote to help with layout.

  • 08:15

    NARRATOR [continued]: Now watch the second movie to learnhow to list journals and websitesand improve your bibliographies by trying all the exercises.

Video Info

Series Name: Essay Writing Kit

Publisher: SAGE Publications Ltd

Publication Year: 2015

Video Type:Tutorial

Methods: Study skills, Practical skills

Keywords: citations; essays

Segment Info

Segment Num.: 1

Persons Discussed:

Events Discussed:



Eveline Powell explains how to find information to complete a bibliography.

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Bibliographies 1

Eveline Powell explains how to find information to complete a bibliography.

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