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Learn About Cross-Tabulation in SPSS With Data From the General Social Survey (2012)

By: Luke Sloan & Rob Angell Published: 2015 | Product: SAGE Research Methods Datasets

This dataset is designed for teaching cross-tabulation. The dataset is a subset of data derived from the 2012 General Social Survey (GSS), and the example presents a cross-tabulation between race and the highest level of education obtained. The dataset file is accompanied by a teaching guide, a student guide, and a how-to guide for SPSS.

Methods: Cross-tabulation
Prerequisites: Frequency distributions
Data Type: Survey
Software Guide: SPSS
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You can preview and download the dataset from this tab. The dataset is available in multiple file formats, compatible with most common software packages. You can also view and download the Codebook, which provides information on the structure, contents, and layout of the dataset.

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In this tab you will find guides on using this dataset. The Teaching Guide is designed for faculty who are teaching research methods and statistics, with suggestions on how to use the dataset in lab exercises, in homework assignments and as exam questions. The Student Guide introduces the method for students, and can be used in teaching to provide students with an introductory overview of the method or test. The How-to Guide shows how to perform the technique or test using data analysis software.

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About This Dataset
Data Source Citation

National Data Program for the Social Sciences, National Opinion Research Center. (2012). General Social Survey 2012 (Release 5, June 19, 2014) [Data file]. Available from

Full title of originating dataset

General Social Survey 2012 (Release 5, June 19, 2014)

Data author(s) and affiliations

The National Data Program for the Social Sciences, National Opinion Research Center (NORC) at the University of Chicago

Dataset source website address

First publication date


Data Universe

Individual persons 18 or older, living in non-institutional arrangements within the United States

Funding sources/suppliers

National Science Foundation

Sample/sampling procedures

Full probability sampling


Original dataset includes weight variable, WTSSALL

Data collection dates

02-2012 to 04-2012

Time frame of analysis


Unit of analysis


Location covered by data

United States

Links to SRM content
  • Lewis-Beck, M. (2004). Cross-Tabulation. In Michael S. Lewis-Beck, A. Bryman, & Tim Futing Liao (Eds.), The SAGE Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods. (p. 231). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. doi:
  • Contingency Table. (2005). In W. Paul Vogt (Ed.), Dictionary of Statistics & Methodology. (3rd ed., p. 61). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.
List of variables


Respondent ID




Respondent highest level of education


Respondent race

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