The four authors have had extensive experience in role delineation research of health education specialists (HESs), particularly in serving as the steering committee members of the National Health Educator Competencies Update Project (CUP), which is the focus of this case study. Following the provision of a thorough background statement offering context for the HES role delineation research overall, and the CUP research specifically, the authors detail the elements of the four guiding research questions (RQs) for CUP, and then discuss each major phase in this national population-based cross-sectional research. Throughout the discussion, insights are provided to assist the reader in focusing on the unique aspects of the national CUP research process in which there was a 70.6% adjusted response rate from across the United States. Another distinct feature of this case study is the description of the three-tiered Hierarchical Model for Professional Practice (HMPP) that evolved for the first time from the CUP research, with further verification through two subsequent national studies. Notably, the model provides guidance for competency-based activities in the three domains of professional preparation, credentialing, and professional development for HESs. The discussion concludes with a review of six key lessons learned and a succinct summary.