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Cramér’s V Coefficient

Edited by: Bruce B. Frey Published: 2018
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The Cramér’s V (also known as Cramér’s φ) is one of a number of correlation statistics developed to measure the strength of association between two nominal variables. Cramér’s V is a nonparametric statistic used in cross-tabulated table data. These data are usually measured at the nominal level, although some researchers will use Cramér’s V with ordinal data or collapsed (grouped) interval or ration data. Although an italicized capital V is most often used as the symbol for the statistic (V), the lowercase Greek letter φ with a subscripted c may also be used as follows: φc. This entry further describes the Cramér’s V and discusses its assumptions, calculation, and interpretation. It concludes with an example of the use of the Cramér’s V.

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