The term andragogy refers to a set of principles and assumptions about adult learners, the learning environment, and the learning process. Educational research, measurement, and evaluation require a firm understanding of the underlying instructional theories guiding best practices. This entry provides an overview of andragogy including its core assumptions of the learner and learning environment, key outcomes and criticism, and methods of assessment.
Originating from the Greek root andra (meaning adult) and agogus (meaning to lead), the concept of andragogy can be traced back to Alexander Kapp, a German educator, in the early 1800s; however, it was not until the late 1960s that andragogy was popularized by the work of American educator Malcolm Knowles. Although typically associated with adult learning, andragogy describes adulthood as a psychological, ...
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