A number of survey designs deviate from the parameters of a scientific probability design, with significant consequences for how the results can be characterized. Computerized-response audience polling (CRAP) is an example of such a design. In this kind of poll, a sample of telephone numbers is typically purchased and loaded into a computer for automatic dialing. The questionnaire is produced through computer software that employs the digitized voice of someone assumed to be known to many of those who are sampled, such as the voice of a newscaster from a client television station. After an introduction, the computerized voice goes through the questionnaire one item at a time, and the respondent uses the key pad on a touchtone phone to enter responses to each question ...
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